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Health Education

Sexual Health - STDs

**Want to know more.. Take HEA 18. 1 Credit - Late Start Class - 8 weeks

 PID / Epididymitis
 Genital Warts / HPV
 Hepatitis A, B & C
 General Statistics

**statistical information and text gathered from the Center for Disease Control



Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man. Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.


Chlamydia is known as a "silent" disease because about three quarters of infected women and about half of infected men have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.

Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. When the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.

Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon.

Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.


* The most common STD in the US.
* Estimated 3 million cases reported each year
* Chlamydia is the leading cause of premature births
* 80 % of men and 25-40% of women show no symptoms

Complications: (same for gonorrhea)
* The disease can be passed from mother to baby in the birth canal è this will sometimes lead to blindness
* Epididymitis - swollen scrotum in men (sometimes as large as a basketball) .
* 40% of women develop PID (pelvic inflammatory disease - also the same as epididymidis in men)
* 20% of those that develop PID will become infertile

*Autoinoculation can occur with this std = this means that it can spread to other parts of the body. For example if you go to the bathroom, don't wash your hands, and then itch your eye. You can pass Chlamydia to your eye. It can be cured through antibiotics.

 Gonorrhea                                                         back to top                              

Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract; including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and in the urethra in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea.


Although many men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all, some men have some signs or symptoms that appear two to five days after infection; symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.

In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms.

Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat but usually causes no symptoms.


Much the same as Chlamydia
*Rates of infection are 20% higher for Hispanics
*800,000 new cases each year
*Having this disease makes it easier to get other STD's.
*Most men develop symptoms in 3-5 days


Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.

In women, gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). About one million women each year in the United States develop PID. Women with PID do not necessarily have symptoms. When symptoms are present, they can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled “pockets” that are hard to cure) and long-lasting, chronic pelvic pain. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility or increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.

In men, gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful condition of the testicles that can lead to infertility if left untreated.

Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints. This condition can be life threatening. In addition, people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV-infected people with gonorrhea are more likely to transmit HIV to someone else.

 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) / Epididymitis                                                                back to top

*see photo - male

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) ; in women -- is a general term that refers to infection of the uterus (womb), fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) and other reproductive organs. It is a common and serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. PID can damage the fallopian tubes and tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. Untreated PID can lead to serious consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy in the fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the womb), abscess formation, and chronic pelvic pain. In Men this disease is called Epididymitis; a painful condition of the testicles that can lead to infertility if left untreated.


Symptoms of PID vary from none to severe. When PID is caused by chlamydial/gonorrheal infection, a woman may experience mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, while serious damage is being done to her reproductive organs. Because of vague symptoms, PID goes unrecognized by women and their health care providers about two thirds of the time. Women who have symptoms of PID most commonly have lower abdominal pain. Other signs and symptoms include fever, unusual vaginal discharge that may have a foul odor, painful intercourse, painful urination, irregular menstrual bleeding, and pain in the right upper abdomen (rare).


Each year in the United States, it is estimated that more than 1 million women experience an episode of acute PID. More than 100,000 women become infertile each year as a result of PID, and a large proportion of the ectopic pregnancies occurring every year are due to the consequences of PID. Annually more than 150 women die from PID or its complications.


Without treatment, PID can cause permanent damage to the female reproductive organs. Infection-causing bacteria can silently invade the fallopian tubes, causing normal tissue to turn into scar tissue. This scar tissue blocks or interrupts the normal movement of eggs into the uterus. If the fallopian tubes are totally blocked by scar tissue, sperm cannot fertilize an egg, and the woman becomes infertile. Infertility also can occur if the fallopian tubes are partially blocked or even slightly damaged. About one in eight women with PID becomes infertile, and if a woman has multiple episodes of PID, her chances of becoming infertile increase.

In addition, a partially blocked or slightly damaged fallopian tube may cause a fertilized egg to remain in the fallopian tube. If this fertilized egg begins to grow in the tube as if it were in the uterus, it is called an ectopic pregnancy. As it grows, an ectopic pregnancy can rupture the fallopian tube causing severe pain, internal bleeding, and even death.

 Herpes                                                                         back to top

*see photo HSV-2  

There are two types of Herpes:
     * Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) also known as Cold Sores
     * Herpes Simplex Virus 2; also known as Genital Herpes.

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.


Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their infection. However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite pronounced. The first outbreak usually occurs within two weeks after the virus is transmitted, and the sores typically heal within two to four weeks. Other signs and symptoms during the primary episode may include a second crop of sores, and flu-like symptoms, including fever and swollen glands. However, most individuals with HSV-2 infection may never have sores, or they may have very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect bites or another skin condition.

Most people diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes can expect to have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic recurrences) within a year. Over time these recurrences usually decrease in frequency


* 1 in 5 Americans have genital herpes (~ 45 million); yet at least 80% of those are unaware they have it.
* 75 % show now symptoms

*26 % of herpes simplex virus 1 (cold sores) can be transmitted below waist - to the genitals
*2% of herpes simplex virus 2 (genital) can be transmitted above waist - to the mouth
Herpes attacks the spine; and can lie dormant for years; initial outbreak is the most sever, and the outbreak- blisters - will always come back in the same spot. Usually on 1 side of the body only; left or right.


Genital herpes can cause recurrent painful genital sores in many adults, and herpes infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected.

In addition, genital HSV can cause potentially fatal infections in babies. It is important that women avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy because a first episode during pregnancy causes a greater risk of transmission to the baby. If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery, a cesarean delivery is usually performed. Fortunately, infection of a baby from a woman with herpes infection is rare.

Herpes may play a role in the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Herpes can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious.

 Genital Warts / Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV)                                                                         back to top

*see genital warts          *see genital warts male         

Genital HPV infection is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Human papillomavirus is the name of a group of viruses that includes more than 100 different strains or types. More than 30 of these viruses are sexually transmitted, and they can infect the genital area of men and women including the skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the vagina), or anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix, or rectum. Most people who become infected with HPV will not have any symptoms and will clear the infection on their own. Some genital warts infections can be internal, and cannot be "seen".

Some of these viruses are called "high-risk" types, and may cause abnormal Pap tests. They may also lead to cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, or penis. Others are called "low-risk" types, and they may cause mild Pap test abnormalities or genital warts. Genital warts are single or multiple growths or bumps that appear in the genital area, and sometimes are cauliflower shaped.


Most people who have a genital HPV infection do not know they are infected. The virus lives in the skin or mucous membranes and usually causes no symptoms. Some people get visible genital warts, or have pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, vulva, anus, or penis. Very rarely, HPV infection results in anal or genital cancers.

Genital warts usually appear as soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored swellings, usually in the genital area. They can be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large, and sometimes cauliflower shaped. They can appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, and on the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh. After sexual contact with an infected person, warts may appear within weeks or months, or not at all.

Genital warts are diagnosed by visual inspection. Visible genital warts can be removed by medications the patient applies, or by treatments performed by a health care provider. Some individuals choose to forego treatment to see if the warts will disappear on their own. No treatment regimen for genital warts is better than another, and no one treatment regimen is ideal for all cases.


*There are more than 100 different types and strains of HPV. 30 of these are sexually transmitted.
* 45 Million Americans are currently infected
* 50-75% of sexually active men & women are infected.
* ~5.5 Million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year

 Syphilis                                                                                       back to top

*see photo of syphilis stage 1- male      
 *see photo
of syphilis stage 1- female
*see photo
of syphilis stage 1 -finger

*see photo of gumma (stage 3)

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called “the great imitator” because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases.


*Stage 1 (Primary Stage)-The parasite is known as a spirochete. There is no pain with this stage as the spirochete kills the nerve endings. A small painless sore usually in the genital area. Sores can also occur in other locations - depending on where the parasite comes in contact with the body; fingers, lips, breast. Etc.

*Stage 2 (Secondary Stage)- Usually consists of a rash also known as a nickel and dime rash because of the size of the spots. Will appear between 1-6 months after first stage. Most often attacks the hands and feet but can cover the whole body. It will stay for a couple of months. Allopecia or loss of hair on body, fever and flu like illness are also other symptoms.

*Stage 3 (Latent Stage)- There are no symptoms. Latent stage is known as infection for more than 365 days or 1 year. At this point the disease has gone internal and starts to eat the body away from the inside out. Also known as a gumma. It will bore itself out slowly everywhere, feet, mouth, and nose. Etc. Many other secondary infections occur at this time as well, these are what kills the individual

* Blindness
* Aortic aneurysm (heart explodes)
* Moon molars (teeth within teeth)
* Still born babies
* Neuro-syphilis (brain damage)
* Hutchinson's teeth (irregular & stubby)


* The only std you can get non sexually
* Oldest STD that we know of
* Can be cured in all stages, however by stage 3, people die from the other secondary diseases

A few Famous people who died from syphilis:
* Christopher Columbus
* George Washington
* Napoleon Bonaparte
* Al Capone
* Henry VIII

* Hitler had syphilis but did not die from it.

**statistical information and text gathered from the Center for Disease Control



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