Mount Shasta as a Visual Resource
 Yosemite was by far the most painted place in California. The National Park Service alone has over 700 19th and 20th century art works of Yosemite scenes in its Yosemite Collection.
 Johnstone, E.McD. His book 'Shasta: The Keystone of California Scenery' has a note as to the choice of title : "The above title is suggested by the fact that the Sierras bounding the Eastern portion of the State, and the Coast Range the Western, meet at Shasta, forming a Grand Mountain Arch, of which the Great White Butte is the Keystone."
 James, George Wharton p.3. As editor of Out West magazine, in 1914, Wharton labeled Mount Shasta, as "Mount Shasta: California's Fuji-San". Article reprinted as a pamphlet shortly afterward.
 Wilkes p. 134. He lists 17 expedition members and 7 others who were officially engaged as part of the overland trip, as guides and such. He also mentions a few families and individuals who used the expedition as escort, bringing the total to 39 people and 76 animals crossing the mountains into California. Most of the 39 people in the party were not Wilkes expedition members, they were families and individuals taking advantage of the opportunity to get to California with a military escort of sorts.
 Information about the old routes of travel is generally available in the annual publications of the Siskiyou Historical Society. Another especially useful source is Helfrich, Davere. Stagecoach to Linkville, in the 1973 number 11 issue of the Klamath Echoes, the publication of the Klamath County Historical Society. It is a history of the trails and stagelines into Oregon, complete with many useful and interesting maps.
 Brewer, William H. p. 309. He wrote in 1862- "Lieutenant Williamson and Colonel Fremont guessed that it was seventeen thousand feet high, and hence it went thus into all the maps and authorities." Curiously, twenty years earlier the Wilkes (Emmons overland) Expedition (see Wilkes, p.240 Vol. V,) estimated the height as 14,390 feet; it appears that Brewer was unaware of those earlier findings.
 Asa Gray, foremost botanist in America at the time, and incidentally a botanizing visitor to Mount Shasta many years later, refers to Agate as the botanical artist of the Expedition. See footnote number 19.
 Wilkes. p. 232. Wilkes wrote that near the Rogue River, "the Pinus Lambertiana was more common; the trees of this species were not beyond the usual size of the pine tribe, but their cones were seen fifteen inches in length. Some of the sugar produced by this tree was obtained; it is of a sweet taste, with a slightly bitter and piny flavour; it resembles manna, and is obtained by the Indians by burning a cavity in the tree, whence it exudes. It is gathered in large quantities. The sugar is a powerful cathartic, and affected all the party who partook of it; yet it is said that it is used as a substitute for sugar among the trappers and hunters." See also Smucker. p. 248, for Fremont's account of the Sugar Pine trees which his expedition first encountered near Klamath Lake.
 Unfortunately the labels of most of the Indian artifacts are lost, and the Smithsonian does not know which of their Wilkes Expedition Ca. Indian artifacts come from which tribes. Nonetheless the artifacts are there.
 Taft. p. 264. Taft devotes several columns of fine print to a biography of Egloffstein, and includes titles from all of Egloffstein's published Railroad Survey engravings.
 Haskell. p. 2. The first suggestion of such a voyage was made by President John Quincy Adams, in 1825. The U.S. House of Representatives resolved to set the Expedition into motion on May, 21, 1828. It took ten years to get through the red tape and off to sea.
 Eberstadt. p.81. Eberstadt was an historian and bookseller who came into possession of most of the original journals and diaries of the Wilkes Expedition. His catalog of the material, published in 1941, was extensively annotated and illustrated. The manuscripts later became part of the Western Americana collection at Yale. He says quite bluntly that the Wilkes Expedition was spying on the Hudson's Bay Company.
 Wilkes, p. 126. The Wilkes report states that the Emmons group saw Indians setting fires in the Rogue Valley and that they came upon a squaw setting fires as they ascended the Siskiyous. It is interesting that the group of scientists and officers had already fought to the death, with losses on both sides, several times during the three years of South Seas travels. Whole flotillas of islanders had attacked in some instances. The Emmons group was experienced and prepared to defend itself, and they therefore could disregarded dire warnings from settlers and friendly Indians that it was foolish to try to cross the Siskiyous.
 Haskell. p 31. This is the most complete bibliography of all literature pertaining to the Wilkes Expedition, including details of all the various editions of the 20 different reports. The 180 page bibliography was published in 1941 to commemorate the 100 years anniversary of the expedition.
 Ibid. p. 41.
 Stanton. pp. 260-263. Preparations for this overland trip took almost a full month. Before leaving, they consulted with several famous Northwestern personalities, such as John McLoughlin, Tom McKay, and Joseph Meek.
 Ibid. p.239. It should be mentioned that Wilkes was not on the overland trip, though the narrative makes it seem as if he was. He used the journals of the actual overland explorers to reconstruct what was seen.
 Agate's drawings in the published Narratives must number in the hundreds.
 Agatea violaris is the name given to the plant as recorded in Gray's Atlas to Volume XV of the Reports of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, published in 1856. Gray states, on p.91 of the text Volume, that "As the ancients garlanded the graves of their deceased friends with violets, so I dedicate this new genus of Violaceae to the memory of Alfred T. Agate, the Botanical Artist of the Expedition, who died at Washington shortly after its return."
 Ibid. p. 197.
 Goetzmann. p. 10. Goetzmann describes the route, and the art of the Long Expedition.
 Stebbins. p.71-72. Stebbins states, in reference to Peale's watercolors that "This is the first known depiction of a Plains Indian tepee, just as another watercolor is the earliest depiction of grazing buffalo on the Plains -making clear Peale's importance as forerunner to the many Western artists to follow."
 Goetzmann. p. 14. This famous image is reproduced in b&w on p. 14.
 Stebbins. p. 72. See footnote 23 above.
 Barber. p. 158.
 Ibid. p.159.
 Peale. pp. 40-41.
 Ibid. p. 40.
 Haskell. There are many varying accounts of Peale's attempts to finish his atlas, and the troubles that ensue: See also Viola; Peale; Stanton. Nearly all accounts, however, do little justice to the sheer volume of competent collecting, cataloging, describing, sketching, and painting which Peale performed as part of the Expedition.
 Peale. p. 29.
 Ibid. p. 213.
 Ibid. p. 182-183.
 Elam. This book is a history of the Peale Family.
 Withington. p. 76. This is a catalog of manuscripts in the collection of Western Americana at Yale University.
 Quoted in Eberstadt. p. 95.
 Stanton.p. 277. Stanton mentions that for the men who had to do the confiscation - "It was a humiliating business. No one relished serving on this committee enjoined to extract every scrap and relic from men who had labored four long and arduous years, their few pitiful souvenirs now to be tossed into the government's great maw . . ."
 Eberstadt. p 106.
 This drawing is reproduced on page 96 of Eberstadt.
 Viola. p. 31. The author states: "It was Brackenridge who spied the previously unknown pitcher plant, and he seems always to have prized it as the Expedition's best botanical discovery." and that
"Darlingtonia californica, sole species of its genus, is the only Expedition plant with an illustrated publication of its own. The newly founded Smithsonian Institution published Torrey's treatment in one of the early volumes in its series Contributions to Knowledge"
 Viola. p. 243-253. These page detail the interesting circumstances of the Smithson bequest, including Smithson's request that the name Smithsonian Institution be used.
 Withington. p. 58-59.
 Dana . The published engraving is nearly identical to the sketch found in Dana's 1841 notebook. The initials on the engraving, L.S. , are those of the engraver. Undoubtedly this was Lockwood Sanford, who also did the engravings for Dana's Manual of Geology.
 Ibid. p. 250-251.
 Stanton. p. 317.
 Egan. p. xi.
 Fremont. Quoted in Egan. p. 119.
 Egan. p. 217.
 Smucker. p. 400. Smucker's book contain's Fremont's complete day by day narratives of the 1842-43 expedition.
 Smucker. p. 337
 Egan. p. 278.
 Ibid. p. 278.
 Hine. P. 11
 Egan. p. 325-326.
 Ibid. 333-334.
 Ibid. opp. p. 321.
 Hine. pp. 26-45.
 Ibid. p. 45.
 Hine. p. 27.
 Beckwith. This Volume II of the Railroad survey gives a full account of the progress of the group, where they were and what they did.
 Quoted in Taft. p. 264. Taft's book on the early illustrators of the West is a formidable, detailed, and invaluable work, especially as to the printing history of the Railroad Surveys.
 Ibid p. 263.
 Ibid. p.263.
 The history of the name Shasta has been the subject of debate since before the turn of the century. Of seven maps consulted for this book, all of them published between 1834 and 1840, and all of them of the Oregon Territory specifically, not one shows the present Mount Shasta as having the name 'Mount Shasta'. On the contrary, three of the maps show today's Mount McLoughlin as being named Shaste and Shasty, and they show today's Rogue River as being named the Shasty River. The four remaining maps also support the idea that today's Mount McLoughlin, northwest of Klamath Lake, was the first Mount Shasta.
According to Jeff LeLande, historian of Peter Skene Ogden's travels in the area, it is quite certain that Ogden was the person who first used a name similar to 'Shasta'. Ogden, in his 1827 journal, used the names Sastise and Sistise, and he applied them to today's Mount McCloughlin, and the name Sasty to the river which is now called the Rogue. The maps which came after his explorations adopted his usage.
The first map to use the name Shasty, or anything like it, for today's Mount Shasta, were those maps resulting from the 1841 Wilkes (Emmons Overland) Expedition. Why Emmons used Shasty and not some other name is still a mystery. As Jeff Lelande points out in his book on Ogden, it was in 1829 that Hudson Bay Co. trapper Alexander Roderick McLeod, in his journals sent to Dr. McLoughlin, used the name of Chaste for today's Mount Shasta. Though the maps of the next ten years did not reflect McLeod's usage, it may nonetheless have been McLeod's use of the name Cheste which influenced the Hudson's Bay community of administrators and trappers to informally adopt the usage of Shaste for the larger of the two mountains.ie. today's Mount Shasta.
Given that Wilkes and Emmons were in the Oregon territory for more than two months before Emmons went overland, there would have been ample time to discuss plans and landmarks. Emmons also met with Tom MacKay and Joe Meek before setting out. MacKay knew the area better than anyone, he was Ogden's guide in 1827 and was McLeod's guide at one point too. Possibly it was from Mackay that the directions to Shasty peak were given. Maybe someday more information willl be available. The crucial question seems to be why did Emmons call today's Mount Shasta 'Shasty'?
One possible place to look would be in papers associated with the Joel Walker trip from Ca. to Oregon, around 1840; this same family traveled back to California with the Wilkes (Emmons Overland) Expedition in 1841.
On U.S. maps published before 1841, the various names of Roger's Peak, Snowy Mountains, Pit Mountain, Mount Jackson, and others, were used for the spot on the map now named Mount Shasta.
 Taft. p. 264.
 Lyons. Quoted from a 1988 catalog of Railroad Survey Prints. As to the seriousness of the government's concern to detail all things, consider for example, that the Williamson Report, Volume 6 of the Railroad Surveys, 1855, contains about 200 pages of geology descriptions, plus full page drawings of fossils; 100 pages of botany descriptions of every plant found along the route plus full page illustrations of plants; 100 pages of description of the trip itself plus color lithographs of the scenery and landmarks; 100 pages of zoology including full page drawings of dozens of fish species, several birds, many mammals; hundreds of barometer, thermometer and astronomical observations; even a brief vocabulary of the Klamath Indian language; and much more. The thoroughness and professionalism of these large volumes is very impressive and all the scientific illustration is of a high caliber.
 Taft. p. 5. He states "These volumes, published by the Federal Government between 1855 and 1861, constitute probably the most important single contemporary source of knowledge on Western geography and history and their value is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of many beautiful plates in color of scenery, native inhabitants, fauna and flora of the Western country. Ironically enough the publication of this monumental work cost the government over $1,000,000; the surveys themselves $455,000."
 A map showing the two routes can be found in Volume XI of the Survey reports.
 Merritt, J. L. 'Clarence King, adventurous geologist' American West. Vol. XIX, No. 4 p. 53
 Dickason. p.41-51. Dickason's article, 'Clarence King, Scientist and Art Amateur', was found on microfilm in the Francis Farquhar Collection at the Bancroft Library.
 Ibid. p. 41-51.
 Brewer. The University of California edition, 1974, edited by Farquhar, contains a reproduction of King's drawing of Mt. Lassen.
 King. p.276.
 King. p. 282.
 Dickason. p. 41-51.
 Davidson. p. 41-51.
 Olmstead. p XI.
 Ibid. A search through the issues reproduced in Olmstead's book turned up these artists. There were many others to be sure.
 Hutchings California Magazine, May, 1857 p. 482.
 Olmstead. Inside front Cover and inside back cover of the July 1968 American West magazine details the history of this poster.
 Drawings in the collection of the California Historical Society.
 Notebook of J.Lamson in the collection of the California Historical Society.
 Watson.Watson. In 1936 this lithograph was reprinted in a fine press book of fifty scenes from California, all originally printed by Küchel and Drexel and others during the 1850s.
 Hughes. p. 78.
 Dinnean. p. 34.
 Stenzel. p. 145.
 White. p.74-75.
 Ibid. p. 92.
 Dinnean. p. 28.
 Bryant. p. iv.
 Ibid. p. iv.
 Ibid. p. iv.
 A complete set of Watkin's photographs of Mount Shasta is in the Photographic Library of the U.S.G.S. in Denver.
 Alexander McLeod, a trapper and expedition leader for the Hudson Bay Company, had explored and traveled over the eastern base of Mount Shasta several times beginning in the late 1820s. By 1858, settlers of the name McLeod lived in Squaw Valley at the southern foot of Mt. Shasta. According to some authorities the early spelling of the town which sprang up there later was McLeod. However, in 1855 a family by the name of McCloud lived at the Soda Springs in the Sacramento River canyon.  Ross McCloud, head of the family, opened a mill in Strawberry Valley. Eventually, his successors ran the closely held McCloud mill in what is now named the town of McCloud. Thus in all probability there are two precedents to the name, with the McCloud name winning out and subsuming the lesser known name of McLeod. The fact that William Simpson, an Englishman, used the name of "McLeod Indians" as late as 1872, lends credence to the idea of a concurrent use of the two names in the early days of the region's settlement.
 Hogarth. p. 96.
 London Illustrated News, May 31, 1873, and other dates. Simpson drew in the area during March,
April, and early May of 1873.
 Quoted in Hogarth. p. 89.
 Ibid. p. 92. Simpson's full statement was "Some places are celebrated for the beauty of their scenery, others for grandeur or wild and savage aspect. At the Yosemite, all these are found together, snow capped peaks, domes of rocks, high walls of granite; perpendicular cliffs and pinnacles, waterfalls unsurpassed; woods like primeval forest; and the greatest trees in the world, huge like giants before the flood. Eden itself could not have been more loveley."
 One thing to note about Scribners is that there was both a Scribners Magazine and a Scribners Monthly Magazine. Each published a December, 1873 issue.
 Avery. p. 122
 Bohling. p. 30.
 Hughes. p. 327.
 Lundquist. p. 35. The Siskiyou Historical Society published this collection of local history essays specifically devoted to the Sisson-Mt. Shasta area.
 Ludlow. pp. 75-85. The travels of Ludlow and Bierstadt were published as a series of articles over a period of many months. A revised version was later printed by Ludlow as a single book.
 Ludlow. Quoted from 'On Horseback into Oregon', Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XIV, July, 1864. pp. 75- 86.This was a continuing series of accounts by Ludlow of their trip to the West. The next installment was titled 'On the Columbia River'.
 Collection of Keith Memorabilia, Oakland Museum.
 Hill, Robert R. Catalog of the Paintings and Sketches of the Late Thomas Hill. S.F. Thomas Hill Paintings. 1910 There is also a photograph, in Robertson's 'West of Eden', of the interior of the Thomas Hill studio in Yosemite: the Redding portrait can be seen on the wall.
 Letter by Belle Sisson McQuire to her sister Ivy, dated Dec. 4, 1946. Copy of the letter courtesy Dorthy Park.
 Rough draft notes of Belle Sisson McQuire. Copy of these notes courtesy Dorthy Park.
 Samuels p. 260.
 'Local Art Items' in the Evening Bulletin, Nov. 16, 1868.
 Brother Cornelius. Volume 2. p. 28.
 Ibid. p. 147. The exact number of Keith paintings owned by Muir is difficult to determine. There may have been more. In any event it is also known that Muir owned art from other artists, including at least one by Cleveland Rockwell.
 Brother Cornelius. Vol. 1, p.237.
 San Francisco Chronicle, August 8, 1895. Mentioned in Brother Cornelius, Vol. 1, p.388.
 Ogden. p.16
 Salley. p.120. This is a history of the Post Offices in California. The author states that Stanford had a summer home at the Lower Soda Springs. That is not necessarily correct. It is known for certain that Mrs Stanford would have her private railroad car brought to Castle Crags, for her use in the summers. This may be the extent of the Stanford residences in the area, according to Carol Osborne, director of the Stanford Art Museum.
 A conversation with personnel at the Castle Crags State Park disclosed the former existence of the Crocker home in that region.
 Quoted in Kimes, p. 155.
 Murry. p. 13. Hearst's lifelong friend, W.W. Murry, offers this curious insight into the famous William Randolf Hearst: "Mr. Hearst was a great lover of trees and anything that grew in this region to such an extent that he acquired many acres of timberland in Shasta and Siskiyou counties, the bulk lying adjacent to the McCloud River and in Squaw Valley. During Mr. Hearst's lifetime, he prohibited the cutting of trees and even brush. He didn't want to kill any living thing. This applied even to hunting. These holdings are now known as the Hearst Wyntoon Tree Farm and are being managed as such." note- this was written in 1958.
 Personal communication with Mrs. Tupper. She was a friend and neighbor of Ed Stuhl, who worked for the Hearsts.
 These drawings are in the Muir Collection of the Holt-Atherton Center for Western Studies. Reels 24 and 32. The Shasta drawings are found in two forms, one, the original drawings as entered into his journals. Generally they are full page drawings. Two, he copied a few of the Shasta scenes onto other paper, possibly he was going to use them for publication. The Center's index to his Shasta drawings does not list the more numerous journal drawings.
 Quoted in Bade. p. 33.
 Quoted in Bade. p. 38.
 Quoted in Bade.
 Brother Cornelius. p. 167.
 Muir. Picturesque California and the Region West of the Rocky Mountains, from Alaska to Mexico. The earliest edition of this book was actually a series of parts issued over many years. It appears Muir had not even written some of his chapters until 1889, and some parts were not published until 1890. Many different editions of the entire set have been produced and they usually only give the date of 1888, which is very misleading. see Kimes, p. 44 for a detailed look at the publishing history of this massive book project.
 Quoted in Osborne. p.3.
 Quoted in Bade. p.83.
 Muir. Picturesque California, p. 232.
 Wilson.First Art School in the West. pp.44-46.
 Wilson. p. 48.
 The Call, Vol. 79, No. 25. San Francisco, Dec. 25, 1895.
 Stebbins. p. 148.
 Wilson. Artists Around Keith and Hill. p. 28.
 Ibid. p.28.
 Ibid p. 29-30.
 Ibid p. 26.
 Hamilton, Sinclair. Early American Book Illustrators and Wood Engravers, 1670-1870. Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Library, 1958.
 Miller. Artists Around Keith and Hill. p. 18.
 Ibid. p. 16.
 The date 1870 is given due to the mention of Clarence King and Carlton Watkins at Mount Shasta. Whether Welch wrote his journal at the same time or years later is not known. It was in 1870 that King and Watkins were together at Mount Shasta. King was at the time conducting the Shasta stage of his 40th parallel survey, and Watkins made a complete photo series of the mountain, those negatives still in posession by the U.S.G.S. in Denver.
 Broekhoff p. 12. This Oakland Museum reprint was first published in the Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine in 1924.
 Wilson. Artists Around Keith and Hill. p.33.
 Rough draft notes of Belle Sisson McQuire, daughter of J.H. Sisson. She says about the red shirt that Sisson wore "He also wore a red shirt as he said the deer or other animals seeing this moving red object would pause to look at it and so give him time for a better aim."
 Broekoff. p.26.
 Brother Cornelius. Volume 1. p. 237.
 Most of the information presented here about Hittell was gleaned from notes in the Baird Archives at U.C. Davis.
 Obituary, april 15, 1899. newspaper clipping found in the Baird Archives at U.C. Davis. Name of paper unknown, possibly the San Francisco Chronicle.
 Trenton & Hassrick. p.153.
 Stenzel, Dr. and Mrs Franz. p. 17.
 William Dick. In a letter written in 1970. Found in the Baird Archives at U.C. Davis.
 Unsigned letter in the Baird Archives at U.C. Davis.
 Seavey. p.2.
 Seavey. p.2.
 This observation is based on a comparison of a limited number of the works of each artist. But the arrangement of hills, buildings, and roads, usually seen from similar heights, and a similarity in the colors used, indicates if nothing else a common sensibility. In addition to being exposed to the paintings of Pissarro in France, there was one or more of the Pissarro paintings shown in San Francisco in 1894 at the Mid-Winter Exhibition, which Yelland may well have attended.
 Greene. p.13.
 Letter dated 1964, written by Zella Vivian Yelland, niece of R.D. Yelland. Letter found in the Baird Archives at U.C. Davis.
 Personal conversation with Al Becker, director of Abbey House Galleries.
 James. p. 2-3.
 Easton, Eldridge & Co. 1896 auction Catalogue of Strauss paintings; and Kerwin Galleries.
 Hughes. p. 446-447.
 Arthur Thomas, close friend of J.E.Stuart, written in a letter to J.A.Baird. Baird Archives at U.C. Davis.
 Hughes. p. 64.
 Ibid. p. 64.
 Hislop. p.52.
 Ca. and Western Art Research records.
 Trenton and Hassrick. p. 150.
 Stenzel. p. 79.
 Ibid. p. 76-77.
 Ibid. p.152.
 Bohn. p. 19.
 LaPena. The World is a gift of my Teachers.
 Hutchings California Illustrated Magazine. May. 1857. p. 482.
 Oliver. p. xi.
 Ibid. p. 244.
 Official History of the California Mid-Winter International Exposition. p. 123.
 Haily, Volume 5. p. 83.
 Ibid. p. 83.
 Laird. pp. 43-44.
 Ibid. p. 23.
 Some of the people Lummis considered his good friends were listed by him in a note to his son: David Starr Jorden, John Muir, John Burroughs, Earnest Seton, Mary Garden, William Henry Holmes, Remington, Dixon, Borein, Keith, Moran, Burbank(the painter) Borglum. Reference: Dudley, Gordon. 'Charles Lummis' Cultural Assets Press. 1972.
 Laird. p. 65.
 Hughes. p. 184.
 Seavey. p. 22.
 Whitton and Johnson.
 Dominik, Janet. California Impressionism in Laguna Beach, pp. 39-41 in Antiques and Fine Arts, October, 1986. This article is a discussion of the Art Association, but makes no mention of Thomas Moses.
 Hughes. p. 321.
 Wilson. p. 3.
 Hughes. p. 64.
 Southern. p. 7.
 Biographical sketch from the program for a testimonial dinner given for Mabel Frisbie on April 22, 1970.
 Barchus. p. 5.
 Per phone conversation with O'Gallerie, Inc., a Portland auction house.
 Noticias. p. 5.
 Quoted in Noticias. p. 9.
 Noticias. p. 9.
 Chamberlain. p. 2.
 Ibid. p. 2.
 Dowdy. p 124.
 Nelson Rees.
 Guidebook to the Picture Bridge, The Huntington Hotel, 1932.
 Seavey. Monterey: The Artist's View. p.39.
 Moure. p. B-37.
 Hughes. p. 68.
 Hughes. p. 133
 Story courtesy Richard Frey.
 A photograph of this painting was seen at the Miner's Deli in Yreka.
 Information about Edward Stuhl's education courtesy of Mrs. Tanner, neighbor and close friend of Mr. Stuhl.
 Ibid. Before his death Mr. Stuhl had vowed to keep the mountain free from further development. One reason was that a ski area had become a summer time eyesore, and its construction had helped to destroy fragile wildflower habitats.
 Stuhl. p. 14.
 One painting is owned by the Redding Art Museum, and two others are in private collections.
 Quoted in the Siskiyou Pioneer. August, 1947. p. 20.
 Quoted in Masson. p. vi.
 LaPena. My world is a Gift from my Teachers p.10.
 LaPena. The World is a Gift. p.1.
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