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Chapter 10

Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations & Reviews

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The entries in this section are mostly general works which place Mt. Shasta in an historical context. Mt. Shasta was the main sentinel on the California-Oregon trail during the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s. It stood squarely in the middle of a remote territory fiercely defended by Native Americans. It was a landmark that commanded attention. In a physical sense it drew attention because of height, size, and beauty. In a symbolic sense it represented a route of uncertain and difficult passage. As early as 1840 British and American historians such as John Dunn and Robert Greenhow were busy writing books and articles which included mention of the mountain. These early histories were important tools used to support claims of ownership of the Oregon Territory. By the late 19th Century historians such as Hubert Howe Bancroft and Harvey Scott wrote books and articles in order to piece together a clearer view of the disparate facts of the multinational settlement of the West. In the early 20th Century historians such as Reuben Gold Thwaites began to publish and annotate the journals and writings of important and interesting early figures from the Fur Trade and California settlement era. By the middle to late 20th Century, historians such as Edwin Gudde and Carl Wheat on occasion mentioned Mt. Shasta in their extensive writings about California place names and cartography.

The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS1168].††††††††† Bancroft, Hubert Howe 1832-1918.† The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft.† San Francisco, Calif.: The History Company, 1886-1890. 39 volumes. Some 1886 sets published by A. L. Bancroft Company. Numerous editions exist of the various volumes and subsets.†††† H. H. Bancroft states "In 1869, having accumulated some sixteen thousand books, manuscripts, and pamphlets, besides maps and cumbersome files of Pacific Coast journals, I determined to go to work" (Vol. 1, p. viii). Many of his materials, for example a manuscript History of British Columbia by A. C. Anderson, were written specifically for him, often by 'old timers' at his request.† Bancroft's interests focused on the western slope of the North American continent, including Alaska and Mexico. His research findings filled 39 volumes, though note that he was aided by many of assistants.
††††† Note that Bancroft, in addition to "Mount Shasta," uses the plural term "Shasta Mountains" (Vol. 1, p. 327) as a general name, in a manner similar to the use of the name by the Hudson's Bay Company and by members of the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition of 1841 (see Simpson "Letter to McLoughlin" 1842; Dana manuscript journal 1841; Eld manuscript journal... 1841; Wilkes Narratives... 1844).
††††† The following volumes are noted citing general topics considered relevant to Mount Shasta. This is not an exhaustive or analytical list; it merely indicates the scope of Bancroft's material.:
††††† Vol. 1. Native Races, vol. i, Wild Tribes. The Northern Californians, p. 326-361 (contains information about the three blue lines on the chin of several tribes. Quotes often from the anonymous Shastas and Their Neighbors manuscript). Tribal Boundaries, Northern Calif., pp. 442-447.
††††† Vol. 3. Native Races, vol. iii, p. 565.
††††† Vol. 19. History of California, vol. ii, 1801-1824. Arguello expedition of 1821, pp. 445-449.
††††† Vol. 20. History of California, vol. iii, 1825-1840. Jedediah Smith, pp. 153-160. Alexander McLeod, pp. 160-162. Hall J. Kelley, pp. 409-411.
††††† Vol. 21. History of California, vol. iv, 1840-1845. Young and Edwards Cattle Drive, pp. 85-87. Wilkes Expedition, pp. 240-248. Duflot de Mofras, pp. 248-250?
††††† Vol. 23. History of California, vol. vi, 1848-1859. Yreka, pp. 494-495.
††††† Vol. 28. History of the Northwest Coast, vol. ii, 1800-1846. Wilkes' Expedition, including reference of an 1879 letter from G. F. Emmons to H. H. Bancroft, p. 681.
††††† Vol. 29. History of Oregon, vol. i. Baily, Gay, and Turner, p. 96. Map, after Parker's 1838 map, showing Mt. Shasty near 43° latitude, p. 120. Edwards 1837 Diary pp. 139-153. Note that Bancroft thinks the 1837 'Chasta valley and river' of Edwards is present Rogue River valley and river, p. 147.††††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1168].

[MS2106].††††††††† Beadle, John Hanson 1840-1897.† The Undeveloped West.† Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1873. pp. 741-759.†† This material was later slightly rewritten and published in Beadles's Western Wilds, and the Men Who Redeem them, an Authentic Narrative..., Cincinnati: Jones Brothers, 1879.†††† Beadle was an Indiana newpaper man who traveled extensively in the west. His observations are detailed. His inquiries of local residents around Shasta City contributes original background material to the life Joaquin Miller, albeit that Beadle was quite unsymaphethic to the plight of the Indians and even less generous to those whites, like MIller, who lived with the squaws;† Joaquin MIller (p.750-753). He also discusses† Samuel Lockhart who became a monomaniac in regards to killing Pitt River Indians, and was arrested often by Federal Authorities for his actions only to be released to resume his activities 'hunting for Shastas'. States that Lockhart was shot in Idaho while acting as a guard at a mine, and died from complications to a wound of the arm. Interesting picture of Venus and Adonis-Digger Indians (p.752) . Illustration of the interior of a stage coach.(p. 755) Describes Mount Shasta as a "view of indescribable beauty. The lower portion looked like polished marble, shading off by degrees to a bright green; while the summit, covered all the year with snow and ice, appeared a monument of dazzling whiteness." (p. 755). Humorous account of the advantages of plump people versus lean people when riding the stage over mountainous land.† Mentions someone who was possibly Thomas MacKay: "As one of the old settlers informed me, most of the early comers learned French and Indian by the aid of a 'sleeping dictionary,' the pronouniation is not strictly academic. When miners first came they learned that a Scotchman named McKie had been living among the Klamaths for forty years, and was very popular with them; hence their first salutaion was 'Mak a Makkee?'- 'Are you a McKee?' or a good white man-a question which facts soon answered in the negative." (p.?)†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS2106].

[MS1198].††††††††† Browne, John Ross 1821-1875.† Indian War in Oregon and Washington Territories: Letter from Secretary of Interior, transmitting, in Compliance with the Resolution of the House of the 15th Instant, the report of J. Ross Browne, on the Subject of the Indian war in Oregon and Washington Territories. In: House Document 38, 35th Congress, 1st. Session.† [Washington, D.C.]: Jan. 25, 1858. The Shastas and Rogues are discussed, but geographical distributions of these two tribes over the southern Oregon Territory are not given (p. 37). Several tribes which were at war with the Rogues and the Shasta are mentioned.† J. Ross Browne visited the region as a special investigator, and presents, in what he tried to make as unbiased as possible, an official report on the causes of the Indian wars with special emphasis on the Rogue River wars.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1198].

[MS1074].††††††††† Byrd, Cecil K.† The West Bound Pioneer: Overland Emigration to Oregon.† Bloomington, Ind.: The Lilly Library, Indiana University, 1988. Contains detailed annotated entries for many of the books relevant to the naming Mount Shasta and to the emigration on the Oregon-California Trail. Contains unique information about the books, journals and maps of authors such as Hall J. Kelley, Daniel Lee and Joseph Frost, Philip Leget Edwards, Thomas Jefferson Farnham, Sir George Simpson, Lansford Warren Hastings, Miss A. J. Allen, Overton Johnson and William Henry Winter, Joel Palmer, Charles Preuss, Paul Kane, Charles Wilkes, and Lindsey Applegate. Illustrated with photofascimiles of original cover pages.
†††††† One entry describes a manuscript letter by Jesse Applegate and quotes Applegate's comments on the "Rogue's River Clamath and Soth Vallies" (p. 45).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1074].

[MS453].††††††††† Case, Chester H. Jr. The Development of Roads Between Oregon and California. University of California, 1955 (Thesis). Source: Peterson.†††† 40. Find List/10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS453].

[MS942].††††††††† Cline, Gloria Griffen.† Exploring the Great Basin.† Reno, Nev.: University of Nevada Press, 1988. Reprint; new forward by Michael J. Brodhead. First published in 1963 by the University of Oklahoma Press.†††† A thorough history of Spanish, English, and American explorers of the Great Basin with the emphasis on the 1820s and 1830s. Contains one detailed chapter on early maps of the 1830s which showed the cartographic influence of Jedediah Smith. The Gallatin map of 1836 is discussed in detail (see Gallatin 1836).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS942].

[MS687].††††††††† Craig, Joan.† 300 Years of Records. In: Williams, Glyndwr.† Highlights of the first 200 Years of the Hudson's Bay Company.† 1976. pp. 66-70.†† 1976 Reprint of The Beaver. Autumn 1970, Outfit 301.†††† This is a guide to the historical policies of record keeping of the Hudson's Bay Company. The article includes a discussion of the modern HBC safeguarding practices used to insure that this vast legacy remains intact.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS687].

[MS44].††††††††† Dillon, Richard.† Siskiyou Trail: The Hudson's Bay Company Route to California.† New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. One of the most thorough studies of the early exploration of the Mount Shasta region. Extensive chapters on the history of the fur trade routes through the Siskiyous. Chapters are devoted to the expeditions of Peter Skene Ogden, Alexander McLeod, Ewing Young, Charles Wilkes, John Work, Jedediah Smith, and others. A very readable book. Contains an extensive selected bibliography. The book is somewhat dated by more recent work on the history of the Siskiyou Trail and of Mount Shasta (see LaLande 1987).
††††† The selected bibliography documents that the author has consulted the journals and diaries of the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition members. The author stresses the importance of the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition of 1841: "... the completion of the investigation of Emmons and Eld on October 28, 1841, really put the Siskiyou Trail 'on the map'"(p. 350).
††††† The book contains many photographs, including a rare photo of the legendary Michel Laframboise, who is credited with establishing the upper Sacramento fur trade route west of Mount Shasta (p. xxvii).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS44].

[MS147].††††††††† Dillon, Richard.† Siskiyou Pass.† San Francisco, Calif.: The Book Club of San Francisco, 1979. Pamphlet. Loose bound in publisher's box, along with other pamphlets in the series. Title of the box, 'California Trails and Mountain Passes', differs slightly from the series title.†††† Four page pamphlet on the history of the Siskiyou Pass. Mount Shasta is mentioned several times. Footnotes and sources of information are not given. Note that the "Shasta Mountains" is defined as the "easternmost crags of the Trinity Range" (p. 4). The author is probably referring to the "Sasty Mountains," as the term was used by the Wilkes-Emmons expedition of 1841 (see Wilkes. Letter ...Sept. 1, 1841. In Wilkes. Narratives...1845, Vol. 5. p. 518). An untitled and unattributed illustration of Mount Shasta appears on p. 2. This illustration is almost certainly the work of artist Edward Kern and it first appears in Fremont's 1887 Memoirs. A reference to Alexander McLeod's "Pass of the Siskiyous, 1830" (p. 3) is mentioned but the source of the reference is undocumented.††††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS147].

[MS1152].††††††††† Dunn, John.† The Oregon Territory, and the British North American Fur Trade, with an Account of the Habits and Customs of the Principal Native Tribes on the Northern Continent.† Philadelphia, Pa.: G. B. Zieber and Co., 1845. 'By John Dunn. Late of the Hudson's Bay Company: Eight Years a Resident in the Country.' First published as The History of the Oregon Territory , London,1845.†††† Historian John Dunn, a former employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, wrote this book to support the English claims to the Oregon Territory. He particularly addresses issues raised by the American Thomas Farnham, and although Dunn disagrees with Farnham in general he does follow Farnham's adoption of Hall J. Kelley's "President's Range" names for the present Cascades mountains, including the adoption of the name "Mount Jackson" for present Mt. Shasta.† These names were, says Dunn: "...entirely new to the Britishers" (p. 141). He states that: "Mount Jackson is the most southern peak of the range, lying in latitude forty-one, beyond the southern boundary of Oregon" (p. 42).
††††† Note that, as was often the case in writings of the 1830s and 1840s, the present Rogue River was thought to be connected to the present Klamath river; thus one finds statements such as: "The principal rivers are the Wallamette, the Umpqua, and Klamet; which, with the productiveness of the soil, have been already noticed" (p. 143).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1152].

[MS2121].††††††††† Eagle, Gene. Across the Divide [the McCloud place-name]. In: Weed Press. April, 17, 1996. Sec. B. p. 2. Concerns the history of the town of McCloud, and in part suggests a possible source of the spelling changes from 'McLeod' to 'McCloud' ' Author states: "One of the prerequistes of being county surveyor was that McCloud was also a 'cartographic emperor,' meaning he had free reign over the assignment and spelling of place names on county maps. Doubtless Ross McCloud made certain that Alexander McLeod's achievements were recognized by name on his county maps, but it is equally certain that he ensured that the river which had been named for the Hudson's Bay trapper was spelled the 'right way' i.e. the same way this later McCloud spelled his own name."†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† MS2121].

[MS1192].††††††††† Giles, Rosena.† Shasta County, California: A History.† Oakland, Calif.: Biobooks, 1949. With map and illustrations. Foreword by Jos. A. Sullivan.†††† Contains a few Mt. Shasta legends and facts. Note that the author states: "1800, first recorded trapper contact with the Shasta Indians," but gives no reference to the source for 1800 date (p. 245).
††††† Contains an unusual legend: "To the Indians it was the home of the Great Spirit, who builded it. To this date (1915) it is capped by eternal snow summer and winter. The pennant of snow sometimes blowing from it is called 'The Snow Banner.' A cloud obscuring the tip is the sign of rain. Old timers say: 'Mt. Shasta has her nightcap on.'" (pp. 244-245)
††††† The author also states: "It is the mountain sighted by Frey Francisco Duran on the Spanish trek toward the north in 1814. They called it the 'Jesus Maria' from the river which they supposed came from the mountain. Gage Hill at lower Springs was the point where artists came to paint Mt. Shasta. (Mrs. Gage)" (pp. 244-245).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1192].

[MS847].††††††††† Greenhow, Robert 1800-1854.† Memoir, Historical and Political on the Northwest Coast of North America.† Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, 1840. Contains an authoritative map showing Mount Shasta as "Mount Jackson." This book was revised and much expanded in an 1844 edition (see Greenhow 1845). Greenhow wrote this history at the request of those who wished for American ownership of the region. Greenhow adopted Hall J. Kelley's Presidents' Range names for the Cascade Range, though he retained the British name of "Mt. Shasty" for present Mt. McLoughlin, while naming as "Mt. Jackson" present Mt. Shasta.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS847].

[MS1050].††††††††† Gudde, Erwin G.† California Place Names.† Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1974. Third edition, 1969 revised and enlarged, second printing.†††† Contains a long entry for the name "Shasta." The author accepts without criticism that Alexander Henry's 1814 term "Shatasla" was a name for the same tribe today called the "Shasta," and accepts, citing Merriam's arguments, that there is some controversy as to which mountain, McLoughlin or Shasta, Peter Skene Ogden was naming in 1827. But Gudde felt that: "It is, however, fairly certain that it was Mount Shasta and equally certain that it was not the Shasta River. Merriam (Journal, Wash. D. C. Academy of Science, XIV, 522 ff.) believes that Ogden referred to Mount McLoughlin and Rogue River in Oregon, and the maps of the 1830s support this belief. Albert's map of 1838, a U.S. government publication, shows Shasty River (and a tributary, Nasty River!) flowing into Klamath River from the north, as well as Mount Shasty, all in Oregon." Gudde cites the Eld sketch maps of 1841, and the de Mofras map of 1844 as proof of the California location of Mt. Shasty. Note that Gudde was probably not aware that the Eld maps were the very first maps to transfer the name to a new location, and that Emmons, leader of the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition expressed that they were looking at Mt. Shasty or Mt. Pitt, upon first crossing the Oregon-Calif. Border (see Eld journal 1841; Emmons journal 1841).
††††† The author explains that Madison Walthall, an assemblyman from the Sacramento district, proposed the name "Shasta County," and that on Feb. 18, 1850, the name became official.(see Walthall 1850). Note that the spelling of "Shasta" with an "-a" ending does not appear in published works until after the California Legislature used the spelling in 1850. Gudde only hints at this by stating that "The spelling Shasta is used on Scholfield's map of 1851." Scholfield's map was possibly the first map to ever use the modern spelling.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1050].

[MS1139].††††††††† Hafen, LeRoy R. 1893.† The Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West: Biographical Sketches of the Participants by Scholars of the Subject and with Introductions by the Editor. Under the Editorial Supervision of LeRoy R. Hafen.† Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark Co., 1965-1972. 10 volumes.†††† Various authors, each detailed biography written by a noted historian. Note that the entire series contains hundreds of footnotes which could yield further clues to the history of the Mt. Shasta region. Among the biographies are:
††††† Vol. 1: "Thomas McKay" (pp. 269?-277); "Alexander Roderick McLeod" (pp. 288?-297).
††††† Vol. 2:† "John Work" (pp.?); "Ewing Young" (pp. 370-397?)
††††† Vol. 3:† 'Peter Skene Ogden' (pp.?)
††††† Vol. 5:† "Michel Laframboise" (pp. 145-170).
††††† Vol. 10: contains a Bibliography and Index.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1139].

[MS1071].††††††††† Helfrich, David. Stagecoach to Linkville. In : Klamath Echoes. 1973. No. 11. David Helfrich, managing editor. The entire issue is devoted to this article.†††† An extensive history, consisting of quotations compiled from early newspaper articles and other sources, with modern commentary. Covers the Klamath Falls and Medford regional stagecoach routes, many of which passed by Mt. Shasta during the 19th century.† For Mt. Shasta the map on page 9 is especially useful. Contains many photographs. The "Lockhart road," of the mid 1850s went north : " present Fall River Mills where Pit River was crossed at the Lockhart Ferry. Following up the western side of Fall River Valley past the site later to become Fort Crook, the road turned westerly to head almost directly toward Mt. Shasta. After reaching a location midway between present Bartle and McCloud, or about nine miles from each, the road seems to have developed early into two branches, but exactly when is unknown at present. The right hand or older route followed the 1854 emigrant trail through Military Pass, east of Mt. Shasta and on to Yreka past Sheep Rock. The left hand route passed through present McCloud and on to the vicinity of present Mount Shasta" (p. 8). 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1071].

[MS1196].††††††††† Humfreville, James Lee.† †Twenty Years Among our Hostile Indians: Describing the Characteristics, Customs, Habits, Religion, Marriages, Dances and Battles of the Wild Indians in Their Natural State together with the Fur Companies, Overland Stage, Pony Express, Electric Telegraph, and Other Phases of Life in the Pathless Regions of the Wild West.† New York: Hunter and Company, 1903. 'by J. Lee Humfreville, Late Captain United States Cavalry. 2nd. ed., rev., enl. and improved with many new and rare illustrations selected by the author.' First published in 1897 by Hartford Pub. Co., Hartford Conn.†††† An elaborate attempt to discuss most of the Indian tribes of the American West. Mentions Mount Shasta as the northern boundary of the Wintun (p. 294). Defines the Shasta tribe as one of the Klamath group (p. 307). Places into the "Shahaptin" language the "Shastas," "Scotans," "Rogues or Rascals" "Modocs" and other southern Oregon and northern California tribes (p. 317).
††††† The author discusses from personal experience the characteristics of many of the tribes of the West, though it does not appear that the author met with the Shastas or their neighbors. Due to the author's cultural bias and lack of tact the book contains many deprecating remarks, such as "...quite intelligent for Indians."
††††† The 1903 revised edition as a whole contains one of the most interesting and beautiful collections of American Indian photographs ever published. The hundreds of photographs were selected not by the author, but by the publishers.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1196].

[MS443].††††††††† Jennings, Charles W.† State Geologic Maps of California—A Brief History. In: Bailey, Edgar H. 1914.† Geology of Northern California.† San Francisco, Calif.: California Division of Mines and Geology, 1966. pp. 5-16†††† Jenning's historical report covers 125 years of geologic map-making in California. Much of the study relates in some way to the study of far-northern California. The Railroad Survey maps, the Whitney Survey maps, the Gold Rush maps etc., are all discussed. The real strength of the article is its comprehensiveness and particularly its attention to maps which are not found in the usual historical surveys of California maps. Several of the maps reproduced depict Mt. Shasta.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS443].

[MS1064].††††††††† Kyle, Douglas E., Hoover, Mildred Brooke and others.† Historic Spots in California.† Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1990. Fourth edition. An extensive 1990 revison of the 1968 book by William N. Abeloe which was itself a revision of the original three volumes first published in the 1930s by M. B. Hoover, H. E. Rench, and E. G. Rench.†††† Contains an extensive section on Siskiyou County with an emphasis on Mount Shasta (pp. 452-463). An informative and comprehensive account of the historic Mt. Shasta region. However, numerous legends about the naming of Mt. Shasta and the Siskiyous are accepted without much discussion, including several highly debatable statements such as one about Mt. Shasta: "The first recorded mention of it, as 'Shatasla,' was in 1814, in the journal of Alexander Henry, an early mountain man" (p. 453). Note that no mention of a mountain was made by Henry, "Shatasla" was a tribal name for one Indian (see Maloney "Shasta was Shatasla..." 1945).
††††† The author accepts without discussion that Peter Skene Ogden in 1827 named present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Sastise." Note that there is the strong possibility that Ogden named present Mt. McLoughlin as "Sastise"and not present Mt. Shasta (see LaLande 1987). Author states, quoting Gudde, that 1828 was the date when Alexander McLeod passed through the mountains and lost "a bob-tailed" or Siskiyou horse. The incorrect date of 1828 originates in the 1863 Chinook Jargon Dictionary by George Gibbs (see Gibbs 1863), the date should have been the winter of 1829-1830 (see McLeod "report..." Feb. 15, 1830).† Overall the book is an excellent historical work.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1064].

[MS114].††††††††† Lewis, Oscar 1893.† The Quest for Qual-a-wa-loo (Humbolt Bay).† San Francisco, Calif.: 1943. Oscar Lewis, a renowned American historian, wrote the foreword and presumably wrote the entire book; there is no author attribution on the title page. Another edition of this book, published by the Holmes Book Co, Oakland, 1966, states: 'George D. Murray, editor.'††††† Primarily about Humbolt Bay, this book nonetheless serves as one of the best histories of the early exploration of the Siskiyou Trail. The book includes individual chapters entitled: 'Peter Skene Ogden' (pp. 21-24); 'Jedediah Strong Smith' (pp. 25-74); 'Ewing Young' (pp. 75-88); and 'The Conquest of Northern California by the Americans' (pp. 89-102).† The journals of J. Smith, P.S. Ogden, H. Rogers, E. Young, H.J. Kelley, A.McLeod, T. McKay, P.B. Reading, J. Clyman, L. Hastings, and others, were used in preparing the text. Particular attention is given to clarifying the chronological sequence of the explorations. In all, this unusual and little-known book has a better grasp of the available journals and how they fit together than any other book of its kind. But be cautioned that there are obvious errors in this book, notably 'John' McCleod instead of Alexander McCleod (p. 83) and 'Leroy' Hastings instead of Lansford Hastings (p. 94). Also, the book has no index, no footnotes, and no bibliography.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS114].

[MS584].††††††††† McArthur, Lewis Ankeny 1883-1951.† Oregon Geographic Names.† Portland, Ore.: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1992. Sixth Edition. Revised and Enlarged by Lewis L. McArthur. Original versions of these essays appeared in the Oregon Historical Society Quarterly (see 'Cascade Range' Vol. 26, 1925, pp. 375-380; 'Mt. McLoughlin' Vol. 27, 1926, pp. 356-358; 'Shasta Costa Creek' Vol. 28, 1929,† p. 98.'†††† Contains several entries which indirectly concern Mt. Shasta. States: "Mount McLoughlin...This mountain is called Mount McLoughlin on a map issued in 1838..." Also states: " 'Mount Pitt' appears for the first time on a map made by Charles Preuss, a cartographer who accompanied Frémont; but no reference is made to it by Frémont in his writings" (p. 356).
††††† For the "Siskiyou Mountains" entry, the author relates the various stories of the bob-tailed horse; of the six stones; of a local Indian unknown origin, and of one more: "On p. 598 of Lacombe's Cree dictionary, Montreal, 1874, published in French, is the Cree word sisikiyawatim, which refers to a spotted horse or possibly a packhorse. The obvious similarity between the first part of this word and the word Siskiyou is too great to need comment."
††††† For the "Cascade Range" the author discusses Farnham's latitudes of his "'President's Range' (the names adopted from Hall J. Kelly) or Cascade Range; for 'Mt. Jackson' or present-day Mt. Shasta, Farnham stated the latitude of "41 degrees, 10 minutes" (p.37).
††††† Contains information about the Shastacosta tribe: "Shasta Costa Creek... Shasta Costa Creek is a tributary of Rogue River. It bears the name of the 'Shas-te-koos-tee' Indians. Orvil Dodge spells the name of the Indian tribe in this manner and says that it numbered about 145 in 1854. The name of the creek does not seem to have anything to do with either Mount Shasta or the Spanish word costa meaning coast, but is merely the white man's convenient method of writing the Indian name. The Handbook of American Indians , V. 2, p. 857, lists the tribe or band as Chastacosta, part of the Tututni Indians."
††††† Note that in this book it is not mentioned that a "Mt. McLoughlin" appears earlier on the 1834 Arrowsmith "Map of British North America," though on the 1834 map the name is applied to a mountain approximately in the region of present Three Sisters.
††††† Note also that it is not mentioned that Charles Preuss, Fremont's topographer, actually did create several manuscript maps during 1843 which show a "Sasty" at the approximate latitude of Mt. McLoughlin and a "Pit" at the nearly exact latitude of present-day Mt. Shasta (see Wheat Mapping the Transmississippi West Vol. 2, 1952, p. 196). By 1848 this historically correct name of "Mt. Shasty" for present Mt. McLoughlin had been rendered inoperative by the Wilkes maps of 1844 (see Wilkes 1844) and by the Mitchell map of 1846 (see Mitchell 1846). English and American maps from the 1830s and even from the 1840s show present Mt. McLoughlin as the original "Mt. Shasty" (see LaLande1987, pp. 124-127). Note however that there is still doubt as to the location of the original Hudson's Bay Company's "Mt. McLoughlin," located at different latitudes north of present-Mt. McLoughlin on the maps of the 1830s.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS584].

[MS747].††††††††† McGroaty, John S.† California: Its History and Romance.† Los Angeles, Calif.: Grafton Publishing Company, 1911. Contains an account of two possible origins for the name "Shasta." The author says: "Some authorities claim the name 'Shasta' to be derived from Shas-ti-ka, the name of a tribe of Indians that lived at the base of this mountain. The word "Shas-ti-ka means 'stone house or cave dwellers.' Other authorities claim that the word 'Shasta' is a corruption of the French word 'chaste' and was first applied by explorers because of the wonderful whiteness or chastity of the eternal snow that caps the summit of this wonderful peak" (p. 319). Note that A. L. Kroeber considers the 'stone house' derivation to be a mistake (see Kroeber 1916).
††††† Contains a documented early reference to the "Six Caillieux" theory of the origin of the name "Siskiyou." The author writes that: "Senator Jacob R. Snyder of San Francisco, who advocated the formation of this county, in an argument delivered April 14, 1852, in the Senate of the State of California, stated that the French name 'Six Callieux' was given to a ford on the Umpqua River at which place Michael La Frambeau, who led a party of Hudson Bay Company trappers, crossed in the year 1832. Six large stones or rocks lay in the river where they crossed, and they gave it the name of 'Six Callieux' or 'Six-stone Ford,' and from this the mountain or butte derived its name, which was subsequently given to the county when created" (p. 320).
††††† This story of the "six callieux" on a river crossing is a frequently encountered theory for the origin of the name "Siskiyou." By dating the 1852 speech of the senator the author has given what is possibly the earliest known published example of the legend. Where Senator Snyder obtained this theory, and especially the important details about the year 1832, the Umpqua River and Michael La Frambeau [Laframboise], is not mentioned.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS747].

[MS784].††††††††† McKinney, J. O. Sheep Rock. The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. (Big Springs Edition). Vol. 3. No. 4 . pp. 72-74. Sheep Rock is a large volcanic uplift just north of Mt. Shasta. Sheep Rock is a landmark mentioned in some of the earliest exploration journals of the region. The author states that:† "Hudson's Bay Company factor, Jean Baptist McKay, mentions in his diary that he and his men camped there in 1825. It carried the name of Sheep Rock then" (p. 72). Note that the date of 1825 is perhaps in error, since the 1826-1827 fur trade expedition of Peter Skene Ogden is generally considered to have been the first HBC excursion into California (see LaLande 1987). Note that at least two other Sheep Rock locations appear in early accounts (see correspondence between Alice Bay Maloney and George Schrader in the Schrader File, and the Gibbs manuscript 1851 McKee expedition map). This article also recounts attempts to re-establish sheep on Sheep Rock. 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS784].

[MS1167].††††††† ††McLoughlin, John 1784-1857.† [letter to Governor and Committee, Nov.15, 1843, mentioning the 'Sasty Mountains']. In: Rich, E. E. 1904.† The Letters of John McLoughlin: From Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee. Second Series, 1839-44.† Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1943. pp. 142-148.†† Introduction by William K. Lamb (1904-).†††† A letter criticizing parts of an 1843 American Congress report as inaccurate, misinformed, and biased. The American report contained a section on the ill-treatment of Indians by members of the Fort Vancouver-based Hudson's Bay Company fur trade expeditions. The report quotes from the American "Captain Spaulding" who had spent time at Fort Vancouver. Captain Spaulding wrote of the "Clamath" and "Chester Valley." McLoughlin corrects the spelling: "(the Clamath and Chester Valley he means the Clamet and Sasty Valley)" (p. 145).
††††† Note that the text of Captain Spaulding, reprinted with McLoughlin's notes in parenthesis, states that the Sacramento to be in southern Oregon. Spaulding says: " 1832, a small party of five men, in the employ of the Company, were returning from their trapping, in the Southern part of Oregon Territory, on the Sacramento, who lost their Horses, and being compelled to winter among the Indians (the Clamath and Chester Valley he means the† Clamet and Sasty Valley) were treated by them with the greatest hospitality and kindness" (p. 145). This quote perhaps underscores the possibility that the Americans in Oregon had a different view of the Shasta region geography than did the officers of Hudson's Bay Company.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1167].

[MS817].††††††††† Miesse, William C.† The Historical Cartography of the California-Oregon Border Region: A Partial and Preliminary Survey of Available Cartographic Documents.† 1989. Unpublished manuscript, approximately 100 pages.†††† Contains commentaries and reproductions of dozens of early maps mostly from the 1830s and 1840s, all pertaining to the naming of Mt. Shasta. This study attempts to document the cartographic history behind the naming of two different mountains as "Mt. Shasty." From 1827 until the mid-1840s, it was the convention to use the name "Mt. Shasty," in various spellings, as a name for present-day Mt. McLoughlin in southern Oregon. In 1844, maps published as a result of the U. S. Government's Wilkes Expedition were the first maps to show "Mt. Shasty" as a name for a second, more southerly mountain, one in California, namely present-day Mt. Shasta.
††††† The study attempts to assemble all the available maps and documents which might offer clues to the change in names. A considerable number of maps and documents indicate that the change in names resulted from a complicated combination of influences involving American trappers, American traders (especially Philip Leget Edwards), the American Wilkes-Emmons expedition maps and journals (especially the 1841 manuscript maps of Henry Eld, and the 1841 notebook of George Foster Emmons), the 1844 published maps of Wilkes, the 1846 published maps of Mitchell, and the 1848 Preuss-Fremont map. Although there were influential American government mapmakers who retained the name of Mt. Shasty for present Mt. McLoughlin (notably Greenhow in 1845), the combined influence of the Wilkes, Mitchell, and Frémont maps was to forever rename the mountain we now call Mt. Shasta.
††††† Note that during the course of research one important map historically considered missing was rediscovered in the National Archives: the George Gibbs manuscript map, meant to accompany the 1851 'Shasta Treaty' journal of Redick McKee but never published. Other interesting discoveries included the unpublished 1843 notebook maps of Charles Preuss (similar to the Preuss notebook map published in Wheat 1957, Vol. 2, but on a larger scale with annotations and details of compass angles to Mt. Sasty) showing "Sasty" in Oregon and† "Pitt" in California, with later annotations about a mix up in mountain names. The famous Preuss-Frémont Map of 1848† reverses the mountain names as recorded in these notebooks, explaining in part why the Preuss-Frémont map of 1848 was the first map to apply the name Mt. "Pitt" to present-day Mt. McLoughlin.
††††† Contains many curious maps, including one which resolved the two mountain problem by naming both mountains as "Mt. Shaste."
††††† Note also that the opinion emerged from the research that no map earlier than 1850 shows the name of† Mount "Shasta," That is, no map using the "-a" ending. Among books, maps, journals and other sources, it appears that only two documents use an "-a" ending ( specifically as "Chasta" in the 1837 Edwards manuscript in the California State Library, and Samuel Parker's 1838 spelling of 'Chastą;' Edwards, incidentally, later abandoned the "-a" ending and used the spelling of "Chasty" in his 1842 guide book to the Oregon Territory). The "-a" ending apparently does not appear again, in maps, journals, newspapers, books, or other published works, until after the California State Legislature decided upon the "-a" ending spelling in early 1850 as the spelling for the new Shasta County. Apparently the spelling "Shasta" was used for present Mt. Shasta only after the County was first so named.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS817].

[MS226].††††††††† Neasham, Ernest R.† Fall River Valley: An Examination of Historical Sources, Fall River Valley and the Intermountain Area from the Earliest Times until 1890.† Sacramento, Calif.: The Citadel Press, 1985. First published in 1957.†††† A well-documented study which includes a considerable amount of material on the exploration of the trails near Mount Shasta. The author considers and quotes from the original records of Ogden, Work, McLeod, Reading, Williamson, etc. The location where Alexander Roderick McLeod lost his horses and furs in 1830 is estimated to be on the headwaters of the McCloud (p. 31). This is a highly recommended book on the early exploration of the Mount Shasta region. The title may be geographically misleading, until one realizes that the early routes from Oregon to California generally went by way of Fall River. The book also contains a chapter on the "Aborigines" including much material on the Achumawi Indians, who "visited Mount Shasta for Elk" (p. 6).†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS226].

[MS1227].††††††††† Nicolay, Charles Grenfell Rev.† The Oregon Territory.† London: 1846. 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1227].

[MS46].††††††††† Oakland Public Library.† Older Maps of California: A List in Three Parts Compiled by the Oakland Public Library Reference Department.† 1940. Unpublished typewritten manuscript.†††† An eleven page list of maps and books useful for understanding the different placements of Mount Shasta on early maps of the California-Oregon border region.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS46].

[MS1038].††††††††† Sampson, William R.† John McLoughlin's Business Correspondence, 1847-48.† Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 1973. Contains a thorough and up-to-date bibliography of manuscripts and primary sources for the Oregon fur trade activities of such men as John McLoughlin, George Simpson, and Peter Skene Ogden (pp.157-167). The bibliography is especially valuable for its citations of obscure manuscripts from the 1830s, some of which may someday offer new clues to the origins of the naming of Mt. Shasta and the Siskiyou mountains.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1038].

[MS1151].††††††††† Scott, Harvey.† History of the Oregon Country by Harvey Scott, Forty Years editor of the Morning Oregonian.† Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1924. Compiled from the author's articles of the late 1890s and early 1900s which appeared in 'The Oregonian.'†††† Contains a chapter on the "Names of Mountains" which includes several 1893 articles about the snow peaks of the Cascade Mountains including the old name of" Mt. Pitt" for present day Mt. McLoughlin. (pp. 169-178). Also contains a "Compiler's Appendix" which includes notes on the "Names of Snow Peaks (pp. 300-306). See also p. 179 for notes on the name Siskiyou.
††††† On p. 305 there is an analysis of the name Mount Pitt which includes the statement: "Mount Pitt appears for the first time on a map made by Charles Preuss, a cartographer who accompanied Fremont; but no reference is made to it by Fremont in his writings." Note that the sketch maps of Preuss in his 1843 journals show the name "Sasty" for present-day Mt. McLoughlin and "Pit" for present Mt. Shasta. The fact that the 1848 Fremont-Preuss map reversed the names was probably due to the new naming begun with Wilkes in 1844 and Mitchell in 1846.
†††† An interesting review of the early variations of the name "Klamath" is found on p. 306.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1151].

[MS783].††††††††† [Siskiyou County Historical Society]. Map of 19th century Trails around Mt. Shasta [map]. In: The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. (Big Springs Edition). 1961. Vol. 3. No. 4. Facing p. 20. Fold-out map.†††† Contains an excellent hand-drawn map of the northern side of Mt. Shasta depicting the Yreka Branch of the Applegate Trail and other trails used by emigrants and early settlers. This is a large scale map showing even the most insignificant modern roads in the Shasta Valley, with superimposition of the old trails. 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS783].

[MS2031].††††††††† Smith, D. Dottie.† The Dictionary of Early Shasta County History.† Cottonwood, CA (Box 1147, Cottonwood 96022): D. Smith, 1991. viii, 160, [6] p.; 22 cm.†† Includes bibliographical references (p. 160-[166]).†††† One of the best sources of early place name history for Shasta and Siskiyou counties. Very comprehensive.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS2031].

[MS346].††††††††† Southern, May Hazel.† Our Storied Landmarks: Shasta County, California.† San Francisco, Calif.: P. Balakshin Printing Company, 1942. Explains the naming of the town of Shasta City (near Redding, Calif.). The author states that the town's citizens considered the name of Upper Reading's Springs too long to be a commercial name. At a town meeting on June 8th, 1850, and after much argument, a man named A. B. Brown, who afterward became county judge of Amador County, proposed the name "Shasta." The name change was agreed upon (p. 33).
††††† Southern's book also contains a brief chapter on Joaquin Miller, and gives newspaper references from the Shasta Courier of Aug. 4 and 11th, 1855 for Miller's Battle of Castle Crags. Contains a photo of Miller's Battle Rock.
††††† May Hazel Southern, a co-founder of the Shasta County Historical Society, was the daughter of Simeon (Sims) Southern, who pioneered in 1859 the stage stop which today is marked as the Sims exit, south of Castle Crags, on highway Interstate 5. Some of the most interesting material in this book concerns how Simeon Southern built a small rock fort next to his home site so as to fend off Indian attacks (p. 84).
††††† Note that historically, and quite significantly, prior to the adoption of the "Shasta" County spelling by the California State Legislature on Feb. 18, 1850, there does not appear to be any article, book, or map utilizing an "-a" ending to the name "Shasta" for either the county, mountain or the town, other than perhaps in preliminary State Legislature documents.† The naming of the town of Shasta was mostly done following the example of the County name, and not following the name of the mountain, which had not yet been called by the modern "-a" spelling. According to Erwin Gudde (see Gudde 1969), it was Madison Walthall, an assemblyman from Sacramento, who suggested the name "Shasta" to the State Legislature, and perhaps to him may be credited the modern spelling of the name not only of the County, but of the great mountain as well.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS346].

[MS1207].††††††††† Stuhl, Edward 1887-1984.† Names Given By Explorers to Mt. Shasta.† no date. Unpublished manuscript. 2 pages.†††† Consists of names for Mt. Shasta listed chronologically, along with the explorer's name and the source authority for the name. Though not a comprehensive list, it serves as a useful reference to the names of Mt. Shasta. Note that several of the names, such as Fray Narciso Duran's "Jesus Maria" are likely but unproven early names for Mt. Shasta.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1207].

[MS1140].††††††††† Thwaites, Reuben Gold.† Early Western Travels 1748-1846: A Series of Annotated Reprints of Some of the Best and Rarest Contemporary Volumes of Travel, Descriptive of the Aborigines and Social and Economic Conditions in the Middle and Far West, during the Period of Early American Settlement. Edited with Notes, Introductions, Index, etc., by Reuben Gold Thwaites. LL.D.† Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906. 30 or more volumes.†††† Thwaites may have been the first modern historian to realize and state in print that the British named present Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Pitt," albeit he does not explain the extra "t." He say: "...Mt. Pitt, which name was first assigned by the British to Mount Shasta" (Vol. 29, p. 35).
††††† All volumes not seen. Vols. 29 and 30 contain Mt. Shasta material.
††††† Volume 29: Part 2 of Farnham's Travels in the Great Western Prairies... and contains Thwaites notes (p. 35) on Hall Jackson Kelley's President's Range name of "Mt. Jackson" for present-day Mt. Shasta.
††††† Volume 30: Palmer's Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains 1845-1846.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1140].

[MS2143].††††††††† Warner, J. J. The Indian Pestilence in 1833. In: Los Angeles Daily Star. Aug. 23, 1874. Reprinted in the Kern County Weekly Courier, Aug. 9, 1874. Both newspapers in the California Section of the California State Library.† Reference source:† Sandos, James A.† 'Between Crucifix and Lance: Indian-White Relations in California 1769-1848,' in† Contested Eden: California Before the Gold Rush edited by Ramon A. Gutierrez and Richard J. Orsi, Vol. 76 nos. 2 and 3, Summer and Fall 1997 of California History (magazine).††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† MS2143].

[MS623].††††††††† Wells, Harry Laurenz 1854-1940. Shasta, Monarch of the Sacramento. In: Pacific Coast Travel. Oct., 1925. Vol. 1. No. 3. pp. 27-28. Contains an introduction and four sections: How It Was Named, An Indian Shasta Legend, Climbing the Mountain, The First Climbers. The author reaffirms his 1881 statements (see Wells 1881) that the name Shasta is derived from the Russian "Tchastal" which became the American "Chasta" which in turn became the "Shasta" of today.
†††††† Mentions that N. C. Mayhew in 1859 became the first person to stay overnight on the summit of Mt. Shasta. 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS623].

[MS820].††††††††† Wheat, Carl Irving 1892-1966.† Mapping the Transmississippi West: Volume Two, From Lewis and Clark to Fremont 1804-1845.† San Francisco, Calif.: The Institute of Historical Cartography, 1958.† The five volume Mapping the Transmississippi West, is the most comprehensive work to-date on the maps of the West. Volume 2 contains extensive commentary on more than one hundred maps from the period 1804-1845. This volume is essential reading for anyone interested in the historical cartography of the California-Oregon border region. Vol. 2 contains reproductions of about 60 maps.
†††††† Several of the maps reproduced in Volume 2 are essential to the history of the naming of Mount Shasta; a few of the most important are listed below with the full bibliocartographic name as given by Wheat. The map and page numbers in parenthesis refer to the bibliocartography appendix pp. 203-271. For the actual page on which each map appears refer to either the Table of Map Reproductions Vol. 2, pp. vii-ix, or to the Alphabetical Index of Maps, Vol. 2, pp. 274-281.
†††††† Note that the dates do not always match the date of publication but instead match the dates of Wheat's commentary periods:
††††† "1831 Smith (Fremont, Gibbs): Map of an Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842 and to Oregon & Northern California in the years 1843-44 by Brevet Capt. J.C. Frémont of the Corps of Topographical Engineers under the orders of Col. J.J. Abert, Chief of the Topographical Bureau...[This is the map on which George Gibbs drew Smith's material, in 1851(?); 51 by 31 1/2 inches.]" (Map 398; p. 238). Note that Wheat, who discovered in 1953 this George Gibbs hand-drawn map, considers it to be the only extant copy of the now lost Jedediah Smith circa 1831 map of the west. Gibbs's hand-drawn copy shows "Mt. Simpson" and "Rogers' Peak" in California. Wheat states "Later in his journal, under date of October 26, 1851, Gibbs refers to Mount Shasta, saying 'It is the same as the Rogers' peak of Smith'" (p. 130). Note that Wheat may have been led astray by Gibbs comment, for it is much more likely, based on a careful appraisal of this map, especially noting that "Mt. Simpson" appears twice on the map, and upon a review of the 1836 maps of Gallatin and of Tanner, that "Mt. Simpson" was Jedediah Smith's name for present Mount Shasta, and that "Rogers' Peak" was the name for present Mt. Lassen. Carl Wheat and Dale Morgan wrote an entire book, entitled Jedediah Smith and his maps of the West† (San Francisco, the California Historical Society, 1954), which is about the discovery and significance of Gibbs's copy of the Smith map.
††††† "1834 Arrowsmith: British North America, by Permission Dedicated to the Hon.ble Hudson's Bay Company; Containing the latest information which their documents furnish. By their Obedient Servant J. Arrowsmith. London, Pub.d Feb.y 1834 by J. Arrowsmith, 33 East St. Red Lion Square. [Engraved; 24 by 19 inches; boundries colored by hand.]" (map 403, p. 239). Note that Wheat states: "This is the first map to name the mountain by a name approximating its modern name and the name was given to it by Ogden in 1827" (p. 148). For this map and others, Wheat did not consider the placement of "Shasty" northwest of present Klamath Lake to be the result of anything other than mistaken geography on the part of the mapmaker; that is, Wheat did not consider or realize that Peter Skene Ogden possibly named an Oregon mountain, and not present Mt. Shasta, as "Shasty."
††††† "1836 Gallatin: Map of the Indian Tribes of North America about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic; and about A.D. westwardly. Published by the Amer: Antiq: Soc: From a drawing by Hon. A. Gallatin. Pendleton's Lithography. [Lithographed; 16 & 1/2 inches; various Indian tribal areas colored by hand.]" (Map 417, p. 242).
††††† "1836 Tanner: North America. Philadelphia: Published by H.S. Tanner. Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1836 by H.S. Tanner, in the Clerks office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Tanner's Universal Atlas 2. [Engraved; 11 by 14 5/8 inches; states and districts colored by hand.] (Map 422, p. 245).
††††† "1838 Hood: Map of the United States Territory of Oregon West of the Rocky Mountains. Exhibiting the various Trading Depots or Forts occupied by the British Hudson Bay Company: connected with the Western and Northwestern fur trade. Compiled in the Bureau of Topographical Engineers, from the latest authorities, under the direction of Col J.J. Abert, by Wash: Hood. 1838. M.H. Stansbury del.e [Manuscript; 20 3/4 by 18 3/4 inches]" (Maps 433 and 434, pp. 248-249).
††††† "1839 Parker: Map of Oregon Territory by Samuel Parker. 1838. Copy right secured. Eng.d by M.M. Peabody, Utica, N.Y. [Engraved, 23 1/4 by 13 5/8 inches.] (Map 446, p. 253).
††††† "1839 Kelley: [Manuscript map, without title, by Hall J. Kelley, showing the western portion of the 'Territory of Oregon' and the northern portion of 'High California;' 12 1/2 by 12 1/2 inches.]" (Map 444, p. 253).
††††† "1839 Burr: Map of the United States of North America with parts of the Adjacent countries, by David H. Burr. (Late topographer to the Post Office.) Geographer to the House of Representatives of the U.S. Engraved according to the Act of Congress, July 1839, by David H. Burr, in the clerks office of the District Court of the District of Columbia. [Engraved; 49 by 353/4 inches; boundaries colored] (Map 441, p. 251).
††††† "1840 Burr (Greenhow): The North-west-coast of North America and adjacent territories compiled from the best authorities under the direction of Robert Greenhow to accompany his Memoir on the Northwest Coast Published by order of the Senate of the United States drawn by David H. Burr. Lith. S.D. Longtree. [Lithographed; 21 1/2 by 16 inches]" (Map 447, p. 254).
††††† "1841 Wilkes, 1: Map of the Oregon Territory by the U.S. Ex. Ex. Charles Wilkes Esq.r commander. 1841 J.H. Young & Sherman & Smith, N.Y. [Engraved; 34 by 22 3/4 inches.] (Map 457, p. 256).
††††† "1841 Wilkes, 2: Map of Upper California by the U.S. Ex. Ex. and Best authorities 1844. [Engraved; 11 3/8 by 8 5/8 inches.] (Map 458, p. 256).
††††† "1844 De Mofras: Carte de la côte de L'Amérique sur l'oceán Pacifique septentrional comprenant le Territoire de l'Orégon, les Californies, la Mer Vermeille, partie des territoires de la Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson, et de L'Amerique Russe. Dressé par Mr. Duflot de Mofras, Attaché ą la Légation de France ą Mexico; pour servir ą l'intelligence de son voyage d'exploration Publié par ordre du Roi, sous les auspices de M.r Le Maréchal Duc de Dalmatie, President du Conseil des Ministres et de M.r Le Ministre des Affairs étrangŹres, Paris, 1844. Le Plan gravé par Jacobs. L'écriture gravée par Hocq. Publié par Arthus Betrand. [Engraved; 27 1/2 by 36 inches; boundaries and routes colored by hand]" (Map 474, p. 261).
††††† "1845 Farnham: Map of the Californias by T. J. Farnham. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1845. by Thomas J. Farnham in the Clerk's office of the Southern District of New York. [Cerographic map; 10 7/8 by 14 inches.] (Map 494, p. 268).
††††† "1845 Preuss: [Untitled map showing the upper Snake, Great Salt Lake, Mary's River the Sacramento-Pit and the Clammut (Klamath) River; 6 3/8 by 4 1/8 inches; manuscript.] (Map 499, p. 270). Note that Wheat does not comment upon the fact that this important manuscript map shows "Pit" mountain as the name for present Mt. Shasta, and "Sasty" as the name for present Mt. McLoughlin. The map was drawn in 1843 when Preuss was 'en route' with Frémont's 1843-1844 expedition. Importantly, an unpublished manuscript map from the Preuss notebooks in the Library of Congress contains annotations discussing the confusion in names. In 1848 Preuss published a map which reversed this usage possibly to conform with the conventions of naming used by Wilkes.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS820].

[MS686].††††††††† Williams, Glyndwr.† Further Reading. In: Williams, Glyndwr.† Highlights of the first 200 Years of the Hudson's Bay Company.† 1976. pp. 60-63.†† 1976 Reprint of 'The Beaver'. Autumn 1970, Outfit 301.†††† A bibliographic essay on the major Hudson's Bay Company histories. The author is addressing the serious student of the fur trade.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS686].

[MS685].††††††††† Williams, Glyndwr.† Highlights of the first 200 Years of the Hudson's Bay Company.† 1976. pp. 1-59.†† 1976 Reprint of The Beaver. Autumn 1970, Outfit 301.†††† This article is a very good overview of the Hudson' Bay Company's history, written by an author who has dealt extensively with the labyrinth of documents in the HBC Archives.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS685].

[MS1099].††††††††† Wilson, Maud Eunice. Federal Exploration in California from 1841-1855. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, 1917 (Thesis, Master's).†††† A thorough review of the coordinated program of American government exploration of California during the period indicated. Thesis supervised by the great California historian Herbert Bolton. The thesis covers among others the 1841 Wilkes, 1843 and 1845 Frémont, 1849 Warner, and 1854 Williamson surveys, all of northern California.† The author begins by stating: "Federal Exploration of California between the years 1841 and 1855 was no suddenly launched project of the government, but on the contrary, was planned with much forethought. There was a well-defined movement to obtain California, especially the harbor of San Francisco, some ten years before the Mexican War. This resulted in the Wilkes' and Fremont's expeditions..." (Introduction).†††††
††††† The author points out and quotes Williamson's conclusion that a railroad from the Sacramento Valley to Oregon would be well-advised to pass on the western side of the Cascades if it proves at all possible, since the eastern side of the Cascades is so barren, capable of being wind swept, and is more or less devoid of population (see p. 148). Note that the 1854 Williamson survey work is often credited with having prepared the way for the present railroad route up the Sacramento river canyon from Redding to Mt. Shasta. But Williamson never surveyed the canyon, first having passed on the east side of the Mt. Shasta region, and on the return coming over the Siskiyous as far as Yreka only, before going to Scott Valley and the Trinity river route southward. Apparently Williamson work was preparation by elimination only, since the other routes were not practical, he made a suggestion which later led to the establishment of the Sacramento Canyon railroad route.
††††† This is a very detailed thesis containing an extremely extensive bibliography of government documents pertaining to the 1840s and 1850s exploration of California.†††† 10. Early Exploration: Historical Interpretations and Reviews.† [MS1099].


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