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Chapter 11

Mountaineering: 19th Century

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Climbing Mt. Shasta is a memorable and challenging experience. During the mid-19th Century the climbing excitement was magnified by the fact it took a considerable amount of effort just to reach the mountain. Personal accounts by scientists and explorers who climbed Shasta are found in the following books, articles, diaries, and letters, which taken together, constitute a remarkable legacy of expression. Some of the prose is simple and mundane, while some is inspired and sophisticated. Many famous people wrote about Mt. Shasta: Josiah Dwight Whitney, John Muir, Clarence King, William Henry Brewer, and their accounts are justifiably cherished. But there are just as many lesser known persons who wrote their own stories of the ascent of Mt. Shasta, and they often wrote in as equally an inspired and expressive manner as their better known contemporaries. Several of the entries in this section are not generally available and deserve to be better known. J. D. Whitney's own account of his 1862 climb, published in 1865 in Volume 1 of the Geological Survey of California, is a good example of a little-known work of great style.

The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS1108].          [Alta California]. The Great Triangulation. In: Alta California. San Francisco, Calif.: Sept. 29, 1875. p. 2. Describes the different mountains and the distances from which Mt. Shasta will be observed. Captain Rogers of the U. S. Coast Survey is completing the construction of a reflecting monument on the summit of Shasta and: "From Shasta to Downieville Peak the distance is 150 miles, and from the latter point to Diablo 140 miles, and the third side of 270 miles completes a triangle of very respectable size for surveying purposes. Whether the telescopes will enable the observers to distinctly perceive the signal points or flashes of the heliotrope reflecting the sunlight on the summits, is a question that time will solve." See Collonna. Nine Days on the Summit... 1923 for an account of the successful heliotropic experiment.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1108].

[MS1107].          [Alta California]. Coast Survey Signal on Shasta. In: Alta California. San Francisco, Calif.: Oct. 13, 1875. p. 1. Contains a description of the monument and of the summit region. The signal is: "a hollow cylinder of galvanized iron, 12 feet high and 2 1/2 feet in diameter, surrounded by a cone of nickel-plated copper, with concave sides, 3 feet high and 3 feet in diameter at the base. The nickel plating is a brilliant reflector, and will, from 6 to 9 a.m. and from 3 to 7 p. m., reflect the sunlight in such a manner that the reflection can be seen from the valleys and the mountains from which the summit of the mountain is is believed to be the highest signal used for triangulation in the world."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1107].

[MS464].          Avery, Benjamin Parke 1828-1875. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. May, 1874. Vol. 12. No. 5. Source: Stuhl II     Avery may have accompanied Carlton Watkins up Mount Shasta. 40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS464].

[MS345].          Avery, Benjamin Parke 1828-1875.  Californian Pictures in Prose and Verse.  New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1878. Copyright date is 1877. Another edition was published in 1885 in San Francisco by Samuel Carson and Company.      This book attempts "a general introductory view of the scenography of California" (p. 21). One chapter about the Mt. Shasta region is devoted to a description of rivers and springs while a second chapter describes a summit climb led by the legendary guide Justin Hinckely Sisson. Sisson is described as "... under the average height of men, and weighing only one hundred and thirty pounds, he is lithe and strong, has great powers of endurance, and much courage" (p. 147).
     In the chapter on climbing Avery says that: "The beauty of the trees on the lower flanks of Shasta has become known in Europe, where their seeds are in demand. Sisson has orders for forty to sixty pounds of coniferous seeds yearly, from Germany alone" (p. 158).  Contains an engraving of Mount Shasta as drawn by Thomas Moran from a sketch by H. G. Bloomer. Also contains a poem entitled "Autochthones" which is about the native people in California. The poem mentions Mount Shasta (pp. 280-281).
       Interesting bits of information are interspersed within the narrative. For example, Avery mentions that "Bailey, of the Lower Soda Springs, told the writer that he caught in June, July, and August, 1873, three thousand one hundred and eighty two trout, baiting with salmon eggs" (p. 130).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS345].

[MS1008].          Bayley, George B. Ascent of Mt. Tacoma. In: Overland Monthly. Sept. 1886. Sec. Ser., Vol. 7. p. 266. Source of Citation: Haines, Aubrey L. Mountain Fever., p. 222     Haines mentions Bayley's climb of Mt. Shasta, and that Bayley was a frequent climbing partner of John Muir. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1008].

[MS356].          Bent, Allen H. Mt. Shasta in History and Legend. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1917. Vol. 5. No. 2. p. 180-185. Parts of this article appeared in the mountaineering journal 'Appalachia,' Vol. 13, nos. 1, 2, and 3, in 1913-1915.     A general history of the early exploration of the region with an emphasis on the history of the summit climbs of Mount Shasta.  States that the first ascent was by Capt. Henry Prince in 1852. Note that Bent corrected the name to E.D. Pierce and corrected the date to 1854 in a follow-up article appearing in the Mazama journal of December, 1920.
     Contains a quote by Thomas Starr King about Mount Shasta. Other famous names mentioned in the article are those of Ogden, Wilkes, Dana, Fremont, Carson, Diehl, Roman, Miller, Whitney, Brewer, Clarence King, Rodgers, Colonna, and Diller. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS356].

[MS277].          Bent, Allen H. The First Ascent of Mount Shasta: A Correction. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1920. Vol. 6. No. 1. p. 54. One page correction to the author's previous 1917 Mazama article titled "Mt. Shasta in History and Legend." The correction is a retraction of both the date of first ascent and the spelling of the name of the climber. The author now feels that the name and date as given by J. M. Hutchings should be supplemented by information supplied in Ballou's Monthly Magazine, Oct. 1868, and in Wells' 1881 "History of Siskiyou County." According to Bent, the last name of the climber should be "Pierce," and the date should be either August or September of 1854. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS277].

[MS478].          Boddam-Whetham, John W.  Mount Shasta. In: Singleton, Esther.  Wonders of Nature: As Seen and Described by Alexandre Dumas...And Other Great Writers.  Public Affairs Press: New York, 1962. pp. 183-188.   J. W. Boddham-Whetham's 'Mount Shasta' was first published in Boddam-Whetham, John. W. 'Western Wanderings: A Record of Travel in the Evening Land.' London: R. Bentley, 1874.      An account of a summit climb accomplished sometime before 1874. The author includes some amusing details. Camping above the timberline he says: " Wrapping ourselves in our bundles of blankets, we crept as close as possible to the huge fire, and before long my companions were fast asleep and snoring. I could not sleep a wink, and mentally registered a vow never again to sleep without a pillow. No one can tell till he has tried it, the difference there is between going to sleep with a pillow under the head and a stone or a pair of boots or saddle as its resting place. The deep silence, unbroken save by a most unromantic snore, was painfully oppressive, and I longed to hear even a growl from a bear or a deep whine from a California lion. I listened intently, for it seemed as if the slightest sound, even a hundred miles away, ought to be heard, so still and frosty was the air" (pp. 184-185).
      The author describes the views and the summit itself. At the close of the article he says: " The effects produced by the mingling colours of lava, snow, and ice, and the contrasting shadows of a deep violet hue are so varied, and the radiation of colour at sunrise and sunset so vivid, that it is difficult to keep the eyes turned from the mountain--for nothing seems worthy of consideration in comparison with Shasta" (p. 188).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS478].

[MS549].          Bradley, Cornelius Beach 1843-1936. Neglected Routes up Mt. Shasta. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. June, 1898. Vol. 2. pp. 240-243. The author climbed Mt. Shasta by an unusual southwest ridge route on July 31, 1883. He says: "The guide, in common with all of his kind at Sisson, had done his utmost to prevent me from taking this route; and his preposterous account of its dangers had convinced me that he knew nothing at all about it. I therefore arranged to leave him in camp with the horses." The author was to have climbed with some college students, but he says that: "Next morning I was up betimes, breakfasted, and was ready to start at twenty-five minutes past three, or just as soon as it was light enough to see where to place my feet. The young men could not be persuaded to leave their warm blankets--so my climb was made alone." The author was on the summit by nine-thirty, and was back at camp by one o'clock in the afternoon. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS549].

[MS1246].          Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910. Address on the Occasion of the Tenth Anniversary of the Appalachian Mountain Club. In: Appalachia. Dec. 1886. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 367-369. Professor Brewer of the Yale Scientific Schools gives a brief summary of his involvement with the beginnings of U.S. triangulation surveying (as opposed to the 'meandering' system previously employed in the U.S. prior to 1860). Brewer mentions Mt. Shasta: 'In September, 1862, we made the ascent of Shasta, then supposed to be the highest point in America. Fremont, who was the most intrepid climber among the officers of the United States, had attempted it three times and failed. He had to explore his way. We went up from the west side, and we were by no means the first on top. And by the way, there is an illustration in that peak of the difficulties one frequently has. I collected all the information I could for two years regarding it. Many told us it could not be ascended; others told us it was exceedingly easy; one man said that grass grew nearly to the top, ...'  This document's mention of Fremont attempting three times to climb Mt. Shasta is significant in being one of the very few documents stating that Fremont actually did come to Mt. Shasta itself. It has been speculated but never proven that Fremont was ever on the slopes of Mt. Shasta (see 'Story of Fremont's Ascent of Shasta To Be Published Soon' In: Mount Shasta Herald, Mt. Shasta Calif. April 18, 1929). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1246].

[MS926].          Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910.  [memorial containing an account of Brewer and Clarence King on Mt. Shasta]. In: King, Clarence 1842-1901 and King [Clarence] Memorial Committee of the Century Association.  The Helmet of Mambrino [Clarence King Memoirs].  New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1904. Source of citation: Wilkins 1988, p. 143, p. 433.     Consists of approximately 400 pages of memorials by friends of Clarence King, appended with King's own nineteen page story entitled "the Helmet of Mambrino," first published in 1886.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS926].

[MS333].          Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910. [letter to Professor Brush, Oct. 1, 1862, from 'Shasta']. In : California Historical Society Quarterly. 1928. Vol. 2. pp. 121-131. Appears in Farquhar, Francis P., editor., 'The Whitney Survey on Mount Shasta, 1862. A Letter from William H. Brewer to Professor Brush.'     William H. Brewer was in charge of the northern California portion of the California State Geologic Survey. This letter augments other letters Brewer wrote about Mount Shasta (see Brewer 1974). The present letter gives details of the geology and scenery of the route from Shasta City to Mount Shasta.  Many details are also given about the method of the multiple observations carried out to determine the altitude of the mountain. These were the observations which a few weeks later indicated the official figure of 14,440 feet for the altitude of Mount Shasta. 
      Brewer's intelligent descriptive style is always interesting. For example, he says about the descent from the summit: "The clouds that had formed around us at the summit did not descend much below 11,000 feet, and when we got below this point we had a peculiar scene. It seemed as if we were viewing nature from just beneath the ceiling--as one sometimes views the interior of old churches from some point over the organ. The effect was grand. The clouds cut off the mountain above us and the tops of some of the mountains in the west, which seemed like pillars supporting this vast canopy" (p. 129).
      This letter was the one which came to the attention of the young Clarence King, who saw it in the Yale office of geology professor Brush. It interested King greatly, and is credited in part with stimulating King to come to California and to Mount Shasta.
      Unrelated to the above, but nonetheless a significant historical note, is the famed California historian and editor Francis Farquhar's footnote about Strawberry Valley. He says: "Later known as Sisson, a name unhappily abandoned recently for the pretentious and confusing Mount Shasta City" (p. 124). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS333].

[MS224].          Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910.  Up and Down California in 1860 - 1864 : The Journal of William H. Brewer, Professor of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School from 1864 to 1903.  Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1974. Reprint of the 1966 third Edition. The first edition was published in 1930. Brewer's letters written 1860-1864.     Contains several references to Mt. Shasta. One of the classic accounts of early California field work geology. Brewer came to Mount Shasta twice during this period, once in 1862, and again in 1864.  He was in charge of this portion of the California Geological Survey; J. D. Whitney, the Survey's overall director, was present on the 1862 ascent of Mt. Shasta.
      A letter dated "Strawberry Valley, base of Mount Shasta, Sunday, September 14, 1862," contains a vivid first-hand account of the ascent of the mountain by Brewer, Whitney, and others. Brewer writes: "We now follow up the ridge. Cold as it has been, the cold wind becomes colder, and professor Whitney has his fingers frostbitten. We toil on almost in silence, for no one has breath to spare for talk. Our three friends are ahead....Whitney and I generally bring up the rear, for each of us carries a barometer- and had each a baby it would not require more constant vigilance to protect it from injury" (p. 314). The two barometers were carried in order to measure the air pressure, from which the altitude could be calculated. Note that Josiah Dwight Whitney also wrote a fascinating and detailed account of the 1862 summit climb (See Whitney Geology 1865).
      In a letter dated "Battle Creek, October 5,1862," when the group was on the Pit River,  Brewer says: "One of the Indians came up to me and talked some time, but the only words I could understand were 'Klamath,' 'Shasta,' he pronounced it 'Tschasta,' and tobacco" (p. 323). This pronunciation of a "Tsch" sound in "Tschasta" in 1864, corresponds in part to Fremont's 1843-4 insistence on a 'T' sound in "Tlamath" (see Fremont, 1845).
     "Pluto's Cave," on the north side of Mount Shasta, is mentioned by name and is described by Brewer (p. 473).
      Brewer's second trip to Mount Shasta took place in 1864, and by then the young geologist Clarence King had joined the group. But neither King nor Brewer climbed Mount Shasta in 1864. King's first ascent of Mount Shasta took place in 1870, when he led the 40th Parallel Survey. Brewer and King did, however, in 1864, climb to the summit of Mount Lassen, and Brewer had this to say of the view in his letter of October 5, 1864: "But the great feature is the sublime form of Mount Shasta towering above its neighboring mountains - truly a monarch of the hills. It has received some snow in the late storms, and the 'snow line' is as sharply defined and as level as if the surface of an ocean had cut it against the mountain side" (p. 463).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS224].

[MS1233].          Brooks, Noah. Mount Shasta. In: Marysville Appeal. Aug. 29, 1861. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #211.    Stewart says: "A fine narrative of an important event..." Concerns first barometric altitude measurement t of Mt. Shasta.  See also "Altitude of Mt. Shasta" in Marysville Appeal, Aug. 31, 1861.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1233].

[MS552].          Carlin, Foster M. Among the California Glaciers. In: Californian Illustrated Magazine. Mar., 1893. Vol. 3. pp. 520-526. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS552].

[MS337].          Carroll, John Chauncey. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Golden Era. San Francisco, Calif.: Sept. 18, 1864. p. 1. Contains excellent descriptions of views from the summit of Mount Shasta. The summit hot springs are pictured this way: "Returning on the windward side of the steaming holes--they are not springs, properly so called, as no water issues from them--I made several attempts, when the wind would bend down the column of steam, to secure some of the water for analysis, but was as often repulsed by the poisonous vapor rising in my face. The steam rushes with great force from twenty different holes and fissures--each having a different and peculiar voice; all together hissing, screaming and roaring in a diabolical chorus, unearthly and startling."
      Note that in 1866 Carroll climbed the mountain and reported seeing a glacier on Mt. Shasta (see Chauncey 1866).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS337].

[MS553].          Chauncey. Crater and Summit of Mount Shasta, A New Route. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: Aug. 24, 1866. Vol. 14. p. 2. Attributed to John Chauncey Carroll.    Chauncey, F. E. Ensign, and J. H. Sisson climb by a new route to the summit of Mount Shasta. They view an immense glacier. This is the earliest recorded account of a living glacier on Mt. Shasta. The author writes: "The large ravine which lies between the main peak and the crater, on the northwest, holds at its head a grand and extensive glacier of ice and snow. The accumulated snows of a hundred winters from either side of the mountain are here packed, and the huge mass is now breaking, has moved, in fact, and may soon come crushing down the mountain to Shasta Valley. Where it is breaking a great number of immense fissures are visible, some of them hundreds of yards in length, and ten or twenty feet wide. Their depth we had no means of ascertaining. Looking down the mountain in that direction, Mr. Sisson called our attention to what he termed a grand natural road, which is peculiarly well-defined smooth place of several hundred yards in width, and of a uniform appearance throughout its length, at least eight miles. This is undoubtedly the track of descending glaciers that have at intervals of perhaps fifty years (I judge of the time by the appearance of the trees now growing upon this road, as compared with those on the outside, and assuming that the present glacier is about to break away--but this may be little better than conjecture--) broken away from the location of the present one."
      Contains the author's poem which begins: "The golden noon is shimmering clear and bright,/The sun has paused, and from his throne sublime/He fills the boundless realms with cloudless light,/And Heaven expands a temple, how divine..."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS553].

[MS713].          Church, J. E. Jr. 1864-1959. From Mt. Rose to Mt. Shasta and Lassen Buttes. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. June, 1898. Vol. 2. No. 4. pp. 205-215. The author, his wife, and friends together traveled for three weeks on horseback in 1898 from Mt. Rose near Lake Tahoe to Mt. Shasta. They climbed Mt. Shasta on July 8th, the author noting a "weary climb of seven hours straight up the snow"  and then by way of Thumb Rock. The account is quite interesting, and one gets the impression that this group of people was completely self-reliant. Some of the descriptions are vivid. For example, the author, while ascending the summit, had this not uncommon experience : "We had not gone far when a stone turned beneath my feet and went rolling down the mountain. I thought every moment that it would stop, but every bound only accelerated its speed, until it went like a cannonball in its wild course over the rocks. I immediately thought of my companion sitting on the reef directly in its path. But nothing could be done, and I stood weighing the chances of its flying off to one side. Hearing its rumbling, she now jumped up, and I could see the rock pass her a few yards to the right" (p. 210). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS713].

[MS1258].          Clakson, James. A Trip to Mount Shasta. In: Yreka Union. Yreka, Calif.: July 28, 1866. An early account of a climb to the summit of Mount Shasta via the red banks. The author discusses the help of Sisson not only in in pointing out the way up and giving advice but also aiding the author for several days after the climb: "Your humble servant was completely prostated with painful eyes and a burnt face and remained helpless for days."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1258].

[MS530].          Colonna, Benjamin Azariah.  Nine Days on the Summit of Mount Shasta in Northern California.  New Market, Va.: E. O. Henkel, 1923. First published in The Californian, March 1880, v.1 No. 3, pp. 242-8. Also published in the Journal of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, June 1853, No. 5, pp. 145-152     B. A. Colonna was an assistant to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.  His 1875 mission was to see by telescope the flashes of heliotropes on the summits of Mt. Saint Helena and Mt. Lola, and to return flashes from his own heliotrope (the Mount Shasta reflector monument). His story is one of the true classics of Mt. Shasta mountaineering literature.
      Contains excellent descriptions such as: "While on the snow-field some one shouted, 'Look! look!' and there, about a mile off, where a large rock, called 'The Thumb," projects from the backbone, was a cloud effect more beautiful than I ever expect to see again. A small cloud seemed to have been hovering just behind the ridge from us; the mourning sun had warmed it up, and just as the sun was high enough to welcome us with his genial warmth, the cloud came creeping over the ridge, and partially enveloped 'The Thumb' in a robe, the colors of which were more beautiful than I can describe, and which changed incessantly, and finally, in a few moments, disappeared as silently as it had come before us. The impression left on my mind was that of all the colors of many rainbows passing rapidly into each other in endless confusion" (p. 4).
     Of his mission he says: "Friday, August 1, proved to be the day I had been waiting for. The wind had hauled to the northward during the night, and the smoke had vanished as if by magic. At sunrise, I turned my telescope in the direction of Mount Lola, and there was the heliotrope, one hundred and sixty nine miles off, shining like a star of the first magnitude. I gave a few flashes from my own, and they were at once answered by flashes from Lola. Then turning my telescope in the direction of Mount Helena, there, too, was a heliotrope, shining as prettily as the one at Lola. My joy was very great;....the heliotrope at Mount Helena, one hundred and ninety-two miles off, and the longest line ever observed over in the world." (p. 13).
      Note that Colonna indirectly offers experienced corroboration to the idea that the Indian never climbed to the summit of the mountain.  He says: "Comparatively few Indians have ever been to the summit of Mount Shasta, and these generally with white men. With them it seems to be a sacred place, and its snowy mantle they regard with reverence as an emblem of purity; nor will they defile it even with tobacco-juice (p. 3).
      Colonna begins his report with an insight into the act of writing: "In what follows I state facts for the imagination of those interested, rather than draw on my imagination to please the reader. Everyone who ascends a high mountain has his own experience, and there are sensations peculiar to each individual. For my own part, although accustomed to mountain climbing, I have found nothing more difficult than to describe accurately what I have seen, and it is even more difficult to describe the sensations of one who remains for a long time at a great elevation" (p. 1).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS530].

[MS285].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991. Cooke Tells of First Registers Placed on Shasta. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: 1950. Brief history of the first summit register placed by J. H. Sisson or his guides on the summit, and how this register was given to the University of California. Also states that three mountain climbing organizations have placed registers on the summit. The author outlines the need for agreement on title to these later registers in order to avoid future disputes of ownership to these historically valuable documents.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS285].

[MS2012].          Crosby, Harry Herbert. So Deep a Trail: a Biography of Clarence King. Palo Alto, CA: Dept. of English, Stanford University, 1953 Thesis (Ph. D.)--Dept. of English, Stanford University. Bibliography: pp. 477-490.
Partial contents:   Chaper VII: 'I dared not think of the summit' (Mount Shasta, California) (p.148-160).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS2012].

[MS1269].          [Daily Evening Bulletin]. Ascent of Mount Shasta by Ladies. In: Daily Evening Bulletin. San Francisco, CA: Sept. 23, 1856. The entire article reads as follows: 'MOUNT SHASTA ASCENDED BY LADIES - On Tuesday last, Sept 16th, says the Yreka Union, the famous mountain Shasta Butte was ascended by a party of ladies, where they celebrated the admission of California into the Union. The ladies who preformed this feat, are Mrs. D. A. Lowry, of Scotts Valley, Mrs. Eddy, Mrs. Gage and Mrs. J. White of Yreka, and Mrs McLeod, of Sacramento River. They have accomplished that which, it was thought, up to 1854, from the representations of Fremont, to be impossible. In company with Capt. Pierce, Mr. White, Mr. Stephens, Mr. Sparlin, Mr. Gage, Mr. Gordon and two others, they left the highest point of timber on the mountain at 6o'clock in the morning, and arrived on the summit at 4 o'clock P.M. There they remained half an hour or more, and after planting the star spangled banner upon the highest pinnacle, commenced the descent, and arrived at the starting point at 10 o'clock at night. We are promised a particular account of this interesting association, which, if it be not of unreasonable length, we shall be please to lay before our readers.'     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1269].

[MS1270].          [Daily Evening Bulletin (SF)]. Ascent of Mount Shasta by Ladies. In: Daily Evening Bulletin (SF). San Francisco, Calif.: Oct. 2, 1856. Col. 2. p. 3. The entire article reads as follows: 'ASCENT OF MOUNT SHASTA BY LADIES- Editor bulletin:- In your issue of 23rd -, you notice the ascent of Shasta Butte has been made by a party of Siskiyou ladies and gentlemen---a feat pronounced impracticable by many old mountaineers as late as 1854, and never before attempted save by men, whose natural daring, and experience of mountain life, has fitted them for the accomplishments of such perilous undertakings.
     To Capt. E. D. Pierce, is due the credit of having first reached the summit at the head of the first party in August, 1854. He discovered, after severe labor and exposure, the route by which he descended, and led a second party up in September of the same year; while now we have intelligence of his having right gallantly led a third company, composed partly of ladies, for sixteen hours up and down the rocks and snows and ice of our highest mountain peak. Other parties those above referred to have done so alone in 1855; thus establishing its practicability in the fall of the year. But it has also been demonstrated that the ascent is attended with many dangers and perilous adventures, only to be attempted by those possessed of strong nerves and sound lungs.
     Shasta Butte rises in a sugar-loaf form from the head or southern boundary of Shasta Valley, the Klamath river draining it's northern slopes, while its southern waters furnish a never-failing supply for our own Sacramento. The height of the mountain is estimated at 6,000 feet. Shasta Butte can be distinctly seen through a clear atmosphere from Sutter's Fort.'     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1270].

[MS763].          Davis, M. H.  [letter dated Feb. 24, 1942 concerning the origin of the Mt. Shasta place-names of 'Elk Creek' and 'Elk Spring'].  Feb. 24, 1942. Transcribed copy of letter found in the Schrader File.     Davis states: "Mr. Smith has made a study of the source of the name of Elk Creek and Elk Spring. The following information was received mostly from Ranger Sullaway: When G. W. Baker and his G.L.O. survey party (consisting of John Sullaway--Ranger Sullaway's uncle--Ed Stewart, and Tom Watson, all of whom are now deceased) surveyed T. 41N., R. 3W., in 1882, they found an Elk which had died and had been preserved in a glacier at the head of Ash Creek."
     Most of this letter discusses the Elk routes thought to have existed on the east side of Mt. Shasta. Note that several other letters in the Schrader File discuss the last Elk herds of Mt. Shasta.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS763].

[MS841].          Dickason, David H. Clarence King: Scientist and Art Amateur. In: Art in America. Jan., 1944. Vol. 32. No. 1. Contains information about Clarence King's college days as a member of an art association dedicated to the philosophy of John Ruskin. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS841].

[MS557].          Diehl, Israel S. Ascent of Mount Shasta Alone, 1855. In: Hutchings' California Magazine. May, 1857. Vol. 1. No. 11. pp. 482-485. According to Edward Stuhl's bibliography, Diehl's account was reprinted in Alta California, San Francisco, June 6, 1857, Vol. 9, p.4; and also reprinted in Hutchings' Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California. San Francisco, 1860, pp. 173-179. A London edition of Diehl's account appeared in 1865.     First solo ascent of Mount Shasta. Diehl begins his account: "The morning of the ninth of October, 1855,  opened beautiful and bright....No equipped and noted travelers, officers, literati, or booming lively belles, whose merry, joyful laugh and bright countenances could add so much of interest, were my attendants; thus 'solitary and alone,' and somewhat fearful because of the stupendous and unknown undertaking, by any single traveler, I slowly, yet determinedly, set out upon my journey" (p. 482). He continues: "After resting, I made the final summit, a few hundred feet above, composed of a perfect edge or comb of rocks, running nearly north and south, and from this summit, perhaps the highest, variously estimated from sixteen thousand and five hundred, to seventeen thousand and five hundred feet, and decidedly the most magnificent of our Union, if not the continent, I could look around and see 'all the kingdoms of this lower world' " (p. 484). Of the summit he says: "...and upon that peak I planted the temperance banner, side by side with the American flag, (planted there in 1852 by Capt. Prince,) deposited California papers and documents in the rocks, for safe keeping, as the papers carried up in '52, were unharmed, and fresh as ever. Then, with a great reluctance, notwithstanding the wind, cold, loneliness, and coming night, I was compelled to beat a descent" (p. 484).
      Note that the date of 1852 for Prince's ascent is incorrect; the year was 1854 and the name was not Prince but Pierce (see Pierce "reminiscences..." In Williams and Stark 1977). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS557].

[MS375].          Dixon, Bob.  [the Yreka Brass Band plays on summit of Mt. Shasta, 1858]. In: Rippon, Cy and Rippon, Sally.  The Siskiyou Coal Mine; The Search for Oil in Siskiyou County;  and Other Stories.  Weed, Calif.: Rippon Publishing, no date. pp. 159-165.   First published in the Yreka Union newspaper, Aug. 26, 1858, and reprinted in the Yreka Journal, Aug. 31, 1892.     The Yreka Union article of Aug. 26, 1858 begins: "On Friday last, at one o'clock P.M., six members of the Yreka Brass Band stood on the Summit of Mt. Shasta, to greet this ancient and magnificent landmark with our National Anthems. Six other gentlemen also joined them, making a party of twelve in all" (p. 159). In the same 1858 issue of the Yreka Union, Bob Nixon, who was one of the twelve, gives a lengthy and detailed account not only of the ascent but also of many of the homes the group visited coming to and going from the mountain. This is a highly recommended article for local pioneer history. As for what the band played on top of the mountain, Nixon notes that: "The Brass Band played the National Aires of 'Hail Columbia,' 'Star Spangled Banner,' 'Washington's Grand March,' and 'Yankee Doodle.' Then three cheers were given Mt. Shasta, and three times three cheers for the great United States of America, the Band accompanying the cheering with music" (p. 162).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS375].

[MS374].          Eddy, Harriette C.  [letter to the editor of the Yreka Journal, dated Aug. 13, 1891 describing the first ascent of Mt. Shasta by a woman.]. In: Rippon, Cy and Rippon, Sally.  The Siskiyou Coal Mine; The Search for Oil in Siskiyou County; and Other Stories.  Weed, Calif.: Rippon Publishing, no date. pp. 135-136.   First published in the Yreka Journal, Aug. 13, 1891.     Mrs. Eddy writes to the Editor: "....I was one of the first party of ladies who ever made the ascent of Mt. Shasta on September 9, 1856. Our party consisted of Captain Pierce, D. B. Sanborn, James White, Richard Riker, John Selkirk, Hiram Sparling, John Gordon, Mr. Gage, Thomas Stevens, David Lowery, and a gentleman whose name I have forgotten; Mrs. Ross McCloud, Mrs. Gage, sister of Mrs. P. S. Terwilliger, and myself, all early settlers of Siskiyou, several of whom are still living here and elsewhere. This was the third trip for Captain Pierce, who with Norval Garland and others, made the first ascent."
      In response to published rumors that the women had been carried to the top, Mrs. Eddy states in no uncertain terms that "I can state positively that neither Mrs. Lowery, Mrs. McCloud or myself (who happened to be together,) were 'carried up from the hot sulphur spring to the peak,' or any other portion of the way; and further, the ladies of the party stood the fatigue of the trip as full well as the gentlemen."
      The editor of the paper, Bob Dixon, adds a postscript about the where-abouts of several members of the climbing party, and includes the comment that  "Captain Pierce who headed the pioneer climbing party, went North and  discovered the famous Pierce Diggings of Idaho" (p. 136).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS374].

[MS1143].          Eichorn, Arthur Francis 1957.  [letter to Allan R. Ottley, Aug, 1, 1957, concerning a large survey group lead by a Captain Maxwell who possibly climbed on Mt. Shasta in 1851, three years before the first recorded ascent].  1957. Letter written by Mr. Eichorn to the California State Library inquiring about 'Captain Maxwell.' The reference to Captain Maxwell, with a list of possible sources, was discovered in the Volume 6 binder of Hazel May Southern, Shasta County historian. Possibly Mr. Eichorn passed away before this material could be evaluated and included in his 'Mt. Shasta Story.'      11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1143].

[MS1252].          [Engineering News-Record]. Highest Signal in the World. In: Engineering News-Record. 1926. XC, 93. Short article about the surveying signal on the summit of Mount Shasta, with two photographs; one photographs shows the cylindar after it had fallen over. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1252].

[MS483].          Fitch, George Hamlin 1852-1915. Climbing Snow-Covered Shasta. In: Californian Illustrated Magazine. Mar., 1892. Vol. 1. No. 4. pp. 283-292. The journalist author hires local guide Lew Gordon for a two man climb to the summit. Contains comments such as: "Shasta first reveals itself a cone-shaped mass of white against the sky, looking very much like pictures of Japan's sacred mountain, Fuziyama[sic]" (p. 284) and "Nothing more impressive could be conceived than this awakening of the snow-shrouded mountains to a new day. The vastness of this expanse of mountainous ridges, looking like a storm-tossed ocean suddenly turned to stone, the awful desolation that surrounded me, the sense of loneliness, the feeling of remoteness from the world,--all these emotions crowded upon one's mind and brought tears to the eyes" (p. 290).
      Illustrated with engravings and paintings of Mt. Shasta and climbers by noted early California artist Carl Dahlgren. One engraving entitled "Sliding Down the Face of Shasta," depicts the method, as discussed in the text, of straddling a stout braking and guiding stick.
      Note that the author begins this article with an appropriate recognition of two of Mt. Shasta's premier figures: "Few people really know great mountain peaks like Shasta. Probably in this State there are only two men who may be said to be at home on Shasta,-who know its various moods in winter and summer, and who love the grim volcanic peak because of the very dangers and hardships they have encountered while scaling its rugged face. These men are the old hunter Sisson, who has lived in the shadow of the mountain, and John Muir, the naturalist, who has studied Shasta as other men study a language or a science, and who has made it tell him all its secrets. Both men have paid dearly for there mountain lore, for Sisson is prematurely aged by exposure to the weather in his hundreds of expeditions into the fastness of Shasta; while Muir has narrowly escaped death in great storms on the summit of the mountain" (p. 283). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS483].

[MS2077].          Foulke, Lewis M.  An Account of the Doings of the Edsons and the Foulkes: Pioneers of California.  Photocopy of typewritten copy. 9 pp.     A history of two Shasta Valley pioneer families. The author's aunt was married to Jerome Fay who was a local Mount Shasta mountainer in the the 1870s. The author writes: Uncle Jerome was a great friend of John Muir, the famous naturalist. Muir wanted to witness the effects of a thunder storm from the top of Shasta. He and Jerome went up on a threatening day. The storm lasted until dark and they had to stay until morning. When the clouds cleared, the temperature dropped from 32 above zero to 3 below in 2 minutes. They survived by staying on rocks over the hot springs near the summit. (p. 1.) The author also writes: 'Aunt Hattie climbed Mt. Shasta in 1857 with a party of men. She was the first white woman to climb it. Several years later after returning from the east she climbed it again. Mother also climbed it with this party.' (p. 2)     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS2077].

[MS485].          Freeman, F. C. An Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. Aug., 1887. 2nd Series, Vol. 10. No. 56. pp. 205-210. A descriptive account of the ascent to the summit of Mt. Shasta by five men carrying alpenstocks. Instructions on the proper method of sliding down from the Red Banks are given. The author also mentions that near the summit they: "...stopped to rest at the hot spring in a small enclosure of loose stone wall, built by surveyors who had spent part of the previous summer on and around the mountain" (p. 209). The author lived for a year in the newly-founded town of Montague. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS485].

[MS1237].          Gannett, Henry.  Results of Primary Triangulation.  Washington, D. C.: 1894. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #58     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1237].

[MS486].          Graves, Charles Sumner 1857. Hard Experience, Perilous Ascent of Mount Shasta by Sightseers. In: The Morning  Call. San Francisco, Calif.: July 13, 1888. p.7. Source: Stuhl II    40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS486].

[MS1111].          Hearn, Flemming G.  [table, 1854, Mt. Shasta atmospheric temperatures].  1854. Typescript copy. Table provided 'through the courtesy of Miss Minnie Hearn, Yreka, 1929.'     According to notes accompanying the table: "The following table, showing the variations of the atmosphere as indicated by Roach's Thermometer, while ascending Shasta Peak, Sept. 20th, 1854, was furnished us by our friend, Dr. Hearn, of this place, who was of the first party that ascended this mountain. The thermometer was examined correctly every five minutes, and the degrees set down as shown below. At 1 o'clock, P. M. Sept. 19th, Whortleberry patch or base of Shasta Butte, temperature 88 deg.; foor [t?] of snow, 7 o'clock P. M. 68 deg."
      The table runs from 6 o'clock, [A. M.?], to 1 o'clock [ P. M.?] at the summit. Temperatures generally in the 50s and 40s, with the coldest being 36¡ at the summit.
      Additional notes on page one of the table state: "Dr. Flemming G. Hearn was a member of the Yreka Party of Captain E. D. Pearce's second climbing party, viz: a member of the third party to reach Shasta's summit."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1111].

[MS309].          Huber, Walter L.  [letter about the history of the Coast Survey monument on Mount Shasta].  May 13, 1946. Unpublished letter. In the Schrader File collection.     Detailed letter by Walter L. Huber, a civil engineer. This letter is a report on the Coast Survey Monument on Mount Shasta. Huber writes about visiting the home of historian Francis Farquhar, who had collected a lot of miscellaneous material relating to Mount Shasta. Huber says that Farquhar was a ghost writer in part of Ansel Hall's Sierra Club Bulletin article about Mount Shasta.
      Huber's article contains quotations from B. A. Colonna's article in the March, 1880 The Californian magazine, and contains quotations from other authors cited as Koch, 1907; the Mazamas, Dec. 1905; and MacNeil, 1905. Huber also states his opinion that pack animals could not have attained the very summit of Mount Shasta.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS309].

[MS135].          Isaacs, A. C.  An Ascent of Mount Shasta.  Los Angeles, Calif.: Glen Dawson, 1952. Reprinted from the California Daily Chronicle, San Francisco, April 9, 1856. Also found in the Weekly Chronicle, San Francisco, Vol. 2, No 20, April 19, 1856.     Fascinating account of an ill-advised 1856 early Spring ascent by three local men to the top of Mount Shasta. The author, having lived two years in Yreka, had long wished to make the climb, and now as he was moving back to Indiana, it was now or never for the attempt. The route of the climb, and the difficulties at different stages of the climb are recounted. Having achieved the altitude of the Sulfur Springs, two hundred or so feet below the summit, the following question was posed: "Look at the thermometer, cries Roman. Twelve degrees below zero! Look at ourselves! Faces purple, and looking as if we had just been suffocated! - eyes almost closed up! - lips scarcely movable, limbs stiffening with the cold! Shall we go on?" (p. 17). One of the three climbers, Anthony Roman, would later become the founder of the Overland Monthly, arguably the most important literary journal of all time for the West Coast.
     Place-names as given in Isaacs' account are worth noting: "Tshastl Butte" for Mount Shasta (p. 2); "The Sugar Loaf, or Little Butte" for Black Butte (p. 5); and "Devil's Castle" for Castle Crags (p. 18).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS135].

[MS2107].          J. C. [intials of the author]. Trip to Mount Shasta. In: Yreka journal. Sept. 10, 1879. Six long paragraphs of a solo and then a second multi-person climb to the summit. Contains an account of the reflective cone on the summit, including the educated author's amusement later in Chico when he is told by one fellow that the cone can be seen from the Alleghany mountains and by another man that it serves as a kind of light house for steamers on the Pacific Ocean.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS2107].

[MS925].          King, Clarence 1842-1901.  Active Glaciers within the United States. In: Atlantic Monthly. Mar., 1871. Vol. 27. No. 161. pp. 371-377. This is the earliest published account of King's discovery of active glaciers on Mt. Shasta. Most of the article is devoted to Mt. Shasta and is written in King's exceptionally descriptive style. Of seeing a glacier King wrote: "we rode our mules to the upper limits of vegetation, at a point about nine thousand feet above sea level, on the western slope of a secondary cone which juts from the west side of the main peak. Starting early from the base, we reached the rim of the secondary mountain about one o'clock, and found a very perfect, circular crater, in whose middle rose a smaller volcanic cone, sheltering upon its northern side a frozen lake. Perhaps a third of the interior slope was covered with snow, which was of an exceedingly compact texture, turning into solid ice toward the bottom. We made our way around the rim of this volcano, part of the time following ridges of rock, and then, walking over sharp knifeblades of ice where the whole crater edge was covered. Reaching the north slope we looked down into a profound ca–on lying between our peak and the main cone of Shasta, and were thrilled to see a true moving glacier. From the uppermost limits of the nŽvŽ, which reached quite to the summits of Shasta, we could overlook its whole course as it came down the cone in a series of cascades, curved round the base of the mountain directly at our feet, and flowed down the gorge to the west" (p. 373).
      Although similar in content, the descriptions are different from those of the "Shasta" chapter in King's 1872 book entitled Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS925].

[MS928].          King, Clarence 1842-1901.  On the Discovery of Actual Glaciers in the Mountains of the Pacific Slope. In: American Journal of Science and Arts. Mar., 1871. Vol. 1. pp. 157-167. [Said to be reprinted in Russell, Israel C. Glaciers of North America.]     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS928].

[MS929].          King, Clarence 1842-1901.  Shasta. In: Atlantic Monthly. Dec., 1871. Vol. 27. pp. 710-720. This magazine article also appeared as part of Clarence King's 1871 Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada. Also published in Glaciers of North America by Israel C. Russell, Boston: Ginn, 1897, pp. 55-58     Clarence King's account of his 1870 climb to the summit of Mt. Shasta is arguably the classic account of Mt. Shasta's mountaineering in the 19th century. King's descriptions are unique and forceful. For example, of the view from the summit he says: "Afar in the north, bars of blue shadow streamed out from the peaks, tracing themselves upon rosy air. All the eastern slope of Shasta was of course in dark shade, the gray glacier forms, broken ridges of stone, and forest all dim and fading. A long cone of cobalt-blue--the shadow of Shasta--fell strongly defined over the bright plain, its apex darkening the earth a hundred miles away. As the sun sank, this gigantic spectral volcano rose on the warm sky till its darker form stood huge and terrible over the whole east. It was intensely distinct at the summit, just as far-away peaks seen against the east in evening always are, and faded at base as it entered the stratum of earth mist.
      "Grand and impressive we had thought Shasta when studying it in similar light from the plain; infinitely more impressive was this phantom volcano as it stood overshadowing the land and slowly fading into night"(p. 718). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS929].

[MS1254].          King, Clarence 1842-1901. [notes on glaciers] . In: Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 1878. Vol. 19. pp. 60-63. King's 'notes..' are part of: Wright, George F. 'Some Remarkable Gravel Ridges in the Merrimack Valley.' Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #189.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1254].

[MS231].          King, Clarence 1842-1901.  [glaciers of Mount Shasta, 1870]. In: Powell, John Wesley 1834-1902.  Fifth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1883-84 .  Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1885. pp. 329-332.   This is an excerpt from King's 'On the Discovery of Actual Glaciers in the Mountains of the Pacific Slope' first published in the American Journal of Science. Vol. I. Third Series. 1871, pp.157-167. In the present book, the Shasta material is part of Israel I. Russell's chapter titled 'Existing Glaciers of the United States' pp. 303 - 355.     On September 11, 1870,  King and his party saw what they thought to the first active glacier ever seen on Mount Shasta (p. 329). King named the glacier as the Whitney Glacier in honor of J.D. Whitney, first director of the California Geological Survey. Note that unbeknownst to King  several years earlier a glacier was seen on Mt. Shasta by John Chauncey Carroll and reported in the Yreka Journal, August 24, 1866 (see Chauncey 1866).
     The Whitney Glacier was not the only glacier King would see: "After finishing our observations upon the side crater, and spending a night upon the sharp edge of its rim, on the following morning we climbed over the divide to the main cone, and up to the extreme summit of Shasta, a point 14,440 feet above the sea level. From the crest I walked out to the northern edge of a prominent spur, and looked down upon a system of three considerable glaciers, the largest about 4 1/2 miles in length and 2 or 3 miles wide. On the next day we descended upon the south side of the cone, following the ordinary track by which earlier parties have made the climb" (p. 330).      11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS231].

[MS223].          King, Clarence 1842-1901.  Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.  New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1923. Fourth edition. First published in 1871. This material also appeared in the Atlantic Monthly magazine as: 'Active Glaciers Within the United States.' March, 1871, pp. 371-377; and 'Shasta,' Dec., 1871, pp. 710-720.     Contains an account of Mount Shasta by one of America's greatest geologists. Two chapters are about Mt. Shasta- Chapter XI: "Shasta" and Chapter XII: "Shasta's Flanks"(pp. 275-323). Fresh out of Yale's Sheffield Science School, Clarence King was hired by William Brewer in 1863 as an assistant to the California Geological Survey. They  surveyed Mt. Lassen and Mount Shasta. Later, in 1870, King's natural talents having advanced him rapidly in his profession, he returned to Mount Shasta as head of the U. S. 40th Parallel Survey. After a few more years King was named as the first chief of the United States Geological Survey. His innovations in surveying techniques, especially his introduction of contour lines onto topographical maps, and his overall plan for the mapping of America make King one of the great figures of 19th Century American science.
      King's writing is based upon accurate description utilizing artistic terminology. For example, note his description of the view from the top of Mount Shasta: "A singularly transparent air revealed every plain and peak on till the earth's curve rolled them under remote horizons. The whole great disk of world outspread beneath wore an aspect of glorious cheerfulness. The Cascade Range, a roll of blue forest land, stretched northward, surmounted at intervals by volcanoes; the lower, like symmetrical Mount Pitt, bare and warm with rosy colors; those farther north lifting against the pale horizon-blue solid white cones upon which strong light rested with brilliance (p. 291)."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS223].

[MS927].          [King, Clarence 1842-1901.  [Clarence King and General A. A. Humphreys, a letter book of communications between; and a file of letters received, some mentioning the discovery of glaciers on Mt. Shasta]. In: United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel.  Records of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel ('King Survey'), 1867-81 h microform [In: Record Group 57].  Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, no date. Source of citation: Wilkins 1988, p. 415, 457. OCLC #7626827. National Archives microfilm publication ; M622. 3 rolls.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS927].

[MS357].          King, Thomas Starr 1824-1864. [letter, January 1861, about Mount Shasta]. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1917. Vol. 5. No. 2. p. 181. Appears as part of an article titled 'Mt. Shasta in History and Legend,' by Allen H. Bent.      In January of 1861 Thomas Starr King wrote to president Ballou of Tufts College that: "Last week I went to Marysville [California]. From the church tower I saw the Sierra in saintly whiteness along a horizon of two hundred miles. They were a hundred miles away but seemed not over thirty, and far on the north two hundred and thirty miles air-line, the pyramid of mighty Shasta peeped over the dim plain- a knob of steady flaming gold. Do come out here and go with me to see it and Oregon. We'll go to the summit of Shasta and laugh at Mont Blanc. I mean to" (p. 181).
      Bent states: "Thomas Starr King, known to every mountain lover in New England by his enthusiastic descriptions of the White mountains and to Californians as the man whose eloquence saved their state to the Union during the Civil War, had designs upon Shasta soon after he went to the Pacific Coast" (p. 181). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS357].

[MS473].          Lemmon, John Gill 1832-1908. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In : Pacific Rural Press. San Francisco, Calif.: Aug. 2, 1879. Vol. 18. p. 66. A personal and philosophical account of Mt. Shasta. John Gill Lemmon was a well-known California botanist who  scientifically named the variety of Red Fir known as the Shasta Red Fir, "Abies magnifica var. shastensis Lemmon."
      Contains a detailed description of the climb to the summit, including an admission that the climb, nearly impossible to finish, proved that the author was no longer the mountaineer of his youth: "Shasta has broken my spirit..."
      Lemmon, although grandly impressed with the summit and vast expanses of scenery, has an honest and rather philosophical statement to make: "Some persons on beholding such mighty creations as Shasta, are very loud in the expression of their appreciation. In the presence of the thundering geysers, the monster Sequoias and the cataracts of Yosemite I have heard vehement exclamations in recognition of their Divine author. To me the existence, wisdom, power and benevolence of the Deity are ten times more forcibly exhibited by a microscopical examination of the wing of a gnat."
      In this article, dated "Sissons, July 20th, 1879," he mentions the special Shasta Red Fir tree, noting the exserted cone bracts that define the variety. Note that at that time the tree species and variety were classed as Abies nobilis: "Here the common pines, with the white fir and Douglas Spruce, that form the bulk of Californian forests, leave off, and the noble fir (Abies nobilis) of Douglas, often called from the color of its bark when broken the 'red fir,' occupies the plateau exclusively. This is perhaps, all things considered, the most beautiful tree at all ages in the West.  Trees of 5 feet in diameter and 150 feet high, do not depart from the graceful arrangement of their spray in youth, but still display their immense, horizontal, fan-shaped limbs in symmetrical, diminishing whorls to the top. On the upper limbs, erect and firm, stand the purple or yellowish cones, clothed with long pointed bracts depend from between the scales, causing the cones to resemble owls at roost on the tree tops"(p. 66).
      Lemmon also notes that it was General B. B. Redding, namesake of the city of Redding, Calif., who invited the author along on the trip to Mt. Shasta.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS473].

[MS67].          Lowden, William Spencer.  The William Spencer Lowden Story. In: Tales from 'The Mountaineer': The Jake Jackson collection of Early Day Events of Trinity County as Written for 'The Mountaineer,' Weekly Bulletin of the Rotary Club of Weaverville.  Weaverville, Calif.: Rotary Club of Weaverville, 1964. Contains a brief account by William Spencer Lowden, who with a small group of men, set out in 1850 to climb Mt. Shasta.  After one day of ascent on the mountain itself, they decided to turn back, for want of proper supplies (p.18). This 1850 expedition may be the earliest recorded attempt to climb Mt. Shasta.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS67].

[MS491].          Magee, Thomas. Mount Shasta. In: Scribner's Monthly. May, 1883. Vol. 6. pp. 441-444. Illustrations by Thomas Moran. Reprinted in Whitson, Skip. 'Northern California 100 Years Ago.' Albuquerque, N. M.: Sun Publishing Company, 1976. pp. 45-48.     In the 1880s it was exciting to visit the Mt. Shasta region. The railroads, not to mention the automobiles, were still kept at bay by the impassable mountains. The author writes: "In the northern part of California, unfrequented by the ubiquitous tourist, and as yet scarcely touched by the pen of the versatile Bohemian, lies a region, which, in the grandeur and variety of its mountain scenery, is suggestive of the marvelous glacial Districts of the Alps" (p. 441).
      The author climbs to the top of Mt. Shasta. He says of the climb: "The clouds sloped upward from the mountain, and as I looked, I caught myself instinctively thinking of the dream of Jacob, and half repeating, 'Surely this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven" (p. 443). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS491].

[MS1262].          [Marysville Appeal]. Altitude of Mount Shasta. In: Marysville Appeal. Aug. 31, 1861. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #240.    40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1262].

[MS360].          McDonald, Calvin B. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: The Hesperian. Nov., 1860. Vol. 5. No. 3. pp. 387-391. This 1860 article is remarkable both for its historical detail and its expression of religious sentiment. The statement about Mt. Shasta that "this wondrous pyramid is nearly nineteen thousand feet in height" is merely amusing until one sees that he bases his opinion on a "measurement ... made by a topographical engineer in the employ of the Government at Fort Crook, and who has the reputation of professional capacity."  The author describes old flag poles on the summit and the manuscript notes, found under a rock on the summit, which relate to the flags left by 'Capt. Prince in 1852' and by Rev. Israel S. Diehl, in 1855,  "who, it was recorded, had ascended alone."  Some description of the geology of the summit region is given, for example: "Solid pieces of pure sulphur, cinder and ashes were indisputable evidences of former volcanic existence. From the quantity of sulpher ..."
     The author's religious opinions and experiences are worth noting: "Lingering above the prodigious landscape, we looked and worshipped; not with that adoration inspired in the little temples which men build, but with the speechless reverence which silence commanded on the awful heights. The man who could stand there, an atom in an unbounding space, bewildered by the innumerable splendors of the gorgeous picture, without acknowledging the absolute empire of a GREAT GOD ALMIGHTY, is an atheist too blind, too stolid, too idiotic to be damned for his unbelief. For myself, standing on heights nearly three times the altitude of Olympus, I felt chilled and speechless in the awful presence of Omnipotent Deity, whose tremendous power was silently declared by that gigantic landmark of the clouds."
      In the final paragraph the author memorializes his quiet fellow explorer of the climb, an artist named William McKnight. McKnight was preparing his drawings of the mountain for publication, but passed away in Philadelphia before the project was completed. The author says: "Poor fellow; I suppose his manuscripts and sketches are all lost, for he told me that he had no relatives in the United States. Mac could not write or talk much, but Mount Shasta, with its grand, worshipful scenery, grew to a wonderful exactness under his magic pencil. My friend has stood upon a still more awful promontory overlooking the grim shadowy Valley of Death; and until I, too, shall have looked thence, the hours of reverence and wonder, passed on the cold solitude of Shasta, will have vivid remembrance." 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS360].

[MS532].          McKee, John. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Ballou's Monthly Magazine. 1868. Vol. 28. No. 4. pp. 305-313. First published in 1854: San Francisco Daily Herald., Oct. 9, 1854, Vol. 5, p. 2. Also published in: Beadle's monthly Magazine, Vol. 2, 1866, pp. 373-383; and in  The Argonaut,  San Francisco., Jan. 8, 1927, p. 7; Jan. 15, 1927, p. 7; Jan. 27, 1927, p. 7. [The versions published in Ballou's and Beadle's are nearly identical, however Beadle's includes a poem and the words to a Clifornia packer's song which enliven the story that are left out of the version in Ballou's. The Daily herald (San Francisco), Oct. 9, 1854, presents a narrative that is different and richer in detail than the others, because of its date of publication, the Daily Herald article is probably more accurate and spontaneous. -DF]     In August of 1854  Captain E. D. Pierce was the first person to climb Mt. Shasta to the very top. The next month Pierce invited Mckee to join a group on a second ascent. Nine people made the climb. The author details many landmark and vegetation characteristics of the trail to the mountain. Ascending the mountain, they go by way of the foot of "Red Bluffs." 
      From the summit McKee could see many wonders, including the region where the "lost cabin" of rich gold diggings was still the stuff of legend. About the summit region the author states that: "The rarified atmosphere caused us much uneasiness, warning us that but little time was left at our command. Extending the arms, we endeavored to inhale the air more rapidly, and thus relieve our short breathings; but could neither hear nor feel the air passing to the lungs. After carving our names upon a flinty rock, and securing a few specimens of different formations of lime, we descended to the basin, to examine more particularly the boiling spring" (p. 380).
      Contains a statement that: "The Indians say this valley was originally called Tchaste, and the mountain Yama--the Snowy; also Wi-e-kah--the White--of which Yreka is a corruption. The mountain was known, however, to the early whites as Tchaste Peak--its pure, cold mass suggesting the chaste as a suitable interpretation of the name" (pp. 305-306).
      Contains an engraving depicting Mt. Shasta with an artist sketching in the foreground (p. 307). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS532].

[MS286].          Meredith, George S. Path-Finding Up Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. May, 1895. 2nd Series Vol. 25, No. 149. pp. 451-459. An account of climbing Mount Shasta in August, 1894. The article begins with a sober observation on the lack of the local population's interest in climbing: " 'Philip, why don't you climb Mount Shasta?'  'What fer?'  'This Yankee answer came, in mild surprise, from a young fellow of about sixteen. We found, however, that it was but a reflex of the general sentiment of the people who live within sight of California's noblest mountain" (p. 451). Led by guide Will Russell, the group utilized the "Stewart Trail" named for Mr. E. D. Stewart , who was still alive and interviewed by Meredith. The article states that the Stewart trail was utilized by Gilbert Thompson of the USGS in 1883. In 1884 Stewart led Diller and Richsecher by the same route (p. 453). Meredith's 1894 party reached the summit via "Lunch Rock, a huge lump of sandstone. This rock is supposed to resemble a lunch table, but the less lunch one eats here on the way up the mountain, the better he will feel" (p. 455).
      The author writes that: "Mt. Shasta, with its surrounding woods, should be, and I hope will be, set apart as a national park: for it is the most picturesque mountain in the United States, and as such should have the same protection as that afforded to Yosemite." 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS286].

[MS587].          Meredith, George S. New Trail Up Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. Sept., 1895. 2nd Series, Vol. 26. No. 153. pp. 337-338. Consists of a letter to the editor referring to the author's previous article, "Path-Finding up Shasta." This letter conveys a sense of the era's inconveniences in climbing Mt. Shasta:  " pleases me to say that the trail therein advocated to be built up the east side of Mud Creek Ca–on, from Squaw Valley to 'Glacier Camp,' has been made....To reach 'Glacier Camp' from Sisson, it has heretofore been necessary to travel about twenty-five miles on horseback, over the Stewart trail, crossing Mud Creek Ca–on at a somewhat dangerous point. Now intending mountain climbers can go by stage or private conveyance, via Elk Lawn, to August Schick's place, and thence horseback, up the new and easy trail, gradually ascending to camp at ten thousand feet elevation, much of the grandest scenery of Shasta before them all the way. The whole trip from Sisson to the summit and return can be made in from two to three days." 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS587].

[MS588].          Merriam, Clinton Hart 1855-1942.  Trip Around Mount Shasta.  1898. Manuscript, location not known.     Charles L. Stewart's bibliography for his U. C. Berkeley Master's thesis on the exploration of Mt. Shasta states, p. 138: "This is the narrative of Doctor Merriam's circuit of Shasta in 1898. Although not received in time to be used in connection with the main portions of this thesis, it is of such great importance as to demand inclusion at this point. The original is, of course, in Doctor Merriam's possession; he very kindly had it photostated for me."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS588].

[MS1160].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. [ascent of Mt. Shasta by McDowell, Murray, and Anderson]. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Oct. 10, 1887. Source of Citation: Perry Sims notes    40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1160].

[MS2140].          [Mount. Shasta Herald]. Brushing Sisson-Wagon Camp Road: ...original route for mountain climbers. In: Mount Shasta Herald. July 20, 1922. p. 1. '....when finished this will allow automobiles to travel to Wagon Camp, above the old McGuiness place...Many years ago all parties climbing Mt. Shasta traveled this road.'     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS2140].

[MS1061].          Mt. Shasta Register (summit).  Mt. Shasta Register (summit).  Berkeley, CA: The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1868-1900. Microfilm reel of 'three originals' 398 pages. Originals at Bancroft Library.     "Comments of people who ascended the mountain. 1868 to 1899."
      Charles L. Stewart's bibliography for his U. C. Berkeley Master's thesis on the exploration of Mt. Shasta states: "This register was placed on the summit of Mount Shasta by Mr. J. H. Sisson in 1868 and remained there until 1900 when it was removed by relatives of Mrs. Sisson. At the suggestion of Professor Theodore C. Burnett, Mrs. Sisson presented it to the University of California; it was added to the Bancroft collection of materials for the study of Western American history. Needless to add, it is an intensely interesting document, and I have felt justified in making numerous quotations - some of them considerable length - from it. Without doubt, it is the most important single document consulted in the writing of this thesis."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1061].

[MS1234].          Mt. Shasta Register (summit: 1904-1920).  Mt. Shasta Register  (summit: 1904-1920).  Mazama Library: Portland, Ore., 1904-1920. In possession of the Mazamas.     Charles L. Stewart's 1929 bibliography states: "This register was placed on the summit of Mount Shasta in 1904 and remained until 1920, when some members of the Sierra Club removed it and returned it to the Mazamas. It is now part of the Mazama library at Portland, Oregon. Although the Mazama Register does not reach very far back into the past, it is nevertheless of great value - particularly in furnishing a fairly accurate record of the number of climbers during these years."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1234].

[MS2170].          Olds, Elizabeth Fagg.  Women of the Four Winds.  Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1985. xi; 318 p.; ill.;  maps; ports.; 24 cm.   Bibliography: p. 299-305     'Annie Smith Peck... worked through a succession of progressively higher altitudes, striding up Mount Shasta in California's Sierra Nevada in 1888--at 14,162 feet, her first significant height.' (p.11)  Includes index. Annie Smith Peck -- Delia J. Akeley -- Marguerite Harrison --Louise Arner Boyd.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS2170].

[MS533].          Packard, Alpheus Spring 1835-1905. On the Crater of Mount Shasta. In: Popular Science Monthly. Nov., 1896. Vol. 50. pp. 28-33. Professor A.S. Packard describes the geography and natural history of Mt. Shasta as he found it in 1877. He ascended the mountain most of the way by horse. From his description of the crater being about two thousand feet below and also northwest of Shasta's summit, it is assumed that he is talking about the northerly area between Shasta and Shastina. Noteworthy is his mention of seeing the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep on the ascent. He also discusses the conifer zones from base to timber line. He describes the glaciers, moraines, and "lime deposits." He looks for alpine life forms, but was disappointed in not finding any insects at the highest altitudes. He concludes by saying "From Butteville the view of Mount Shasta is incomparably fine-one of the world's great views" (p. 33). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS533].

[MS1187].          Phillips, Louie I.  [letter to Forest Service Editor, Shasta National Forest, Mar. 16, 1946, concerning the Mount Shasta summit signal monument and 'Sisson Charley'].  Mar. 16, 1946. Photocopy of a one page typewritten letter.     Contains several details about the erection of the Mt. Shasta summit signal monument. Includes mention of the cap itself: "This cap was the heaviest single piece in the monument, it weighed approximately 80 pounds and there was only one man in the party who would undertake to carry it to the top of the mountain. The man was an Indian, locally known as 'Sisson Charley.' For this notable achievement he was paid one dollar per pound. The writer recalls hearing 'Sisson Charley,' years ago, comment upon this feat many times."
      No details of the author's background are given.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS1187].

[MS599].          Pierce, Elias Davidson 1824-1897. First Ascent of Mt. Shasta. In: San Francisco Daily Herald. San Francisco, Calif.: Aug. 28, 1854. Source: Stuhl bibliography; and Stewart 1929 #233.    "Captain Pierce was the first man to Ascend Mount Shasta, on Aug. 14, 1854."     40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS599].

[MS716].          Pierce, Elias Davidson 1824-1897.  The Pierce Chronicle: Personal Reminiscences of E.D. Pierce as Transcribed by Lou A. Larrick.  Moscow, Idaho: Idaho Research Foundation, Inc., 1975? On August 13, 1854  E. D. Pierce and friends were the first persons to have climbed to the summit of Mt. Shasta. A lengthy account of this first summit climb, seven men comprising the group, is given in this posthumously published book of Pierce's reminiscences.
      The first summit climb required the courage and skills of a mountaineer. It was no easy feat. Pierce describes one of the most difficult obstacles as follows: "The next apparently insurmountable barrier which spoke out in bold language thus far shalt thou come and no farther-was a heavy body of snow that dropped off to the north almost perpendicularly, and apparently as hard as flint, on the south towards a high rocky rib (comparatively speaking) to a point as sharp as a cambric needle. We parleyed for some time what was best to do. I said comrades that I would cross if they would follow; they all said they would or perish in the effort. With muffled boots, hatchet in hand and a rope securely attached around my waist, the rope slackened in the hands of those who remained behind, I launched out still in a meeke position, chipping out steps as I advanced, a distance of about sixty feet. Safely across, I called to the men to keep their courage. They came, one at a time, till all were over and looking back on our ice stair way it was a frightful to think of ever trying to make the descent that way. In climbing from our cliff to another, had we made one misstep, we would have gone headlong over a perpendicular precipice a thousand feet to the base" (p. 61).
      The group also crossed what might have been a glacier. Pierce writes: "Soon we arrived at a stretch of snow as hard as steel and smooth as polished marble, and level as a plain. It appeared to be about two miles from north to south and one mile from east to west, and about two thirds of the distance from the base to the summit. In crossing this snow plain, we found cavities or crevices, almost on a streight line north and south, about two feet in width and of fathomless depth. Far below was to be heard a dull, heavy sound, like the falling of mighty waters" (p. 61).
      Of the summit itself, Pierce says: "All the scenery beneath was the most beautiful that my eyes ever looked upon. About 2 o'clock P. M. we planted the Stars and Stripes on the summit of Shasta Butte; and after lettering the face of a smooth, flat stone with a cold-chisel the year, day and date, we left the flag floating in the breeze, and began the descent on the same route as far as the snow plane. From that point we explored a new route farther to the south and found it to be much the best. We came to a point that we gave the name of Red Bluff" (p. 62).
      Pierce states that the month after the first ascent a second group led by one of the original party tried to climb the mountain. They did not succeed, but Pierce agreed to lead them in October on what became the second ascent of Mt. Shasta  (p. 63).
      In September of 1856 Pierce lead a group of men and women to the summit of Mt. Shasta. Among the stalwart ladies were Mrs. McLoud from upper Soda Springs, and Mrs. Edyes [Eddy] of Mt. Eddy fame (p. 65-66).
      Of other interest in the book is Pierce's statement that sometime before 1854 Fremont had tried to climb Mt. Shasta and found it impossible.(p. 60). This is not a verified reference, for Fremont, as far as is known, never wrote about such an attempt. However, it may be that Fremont did indeed attempt the climb, and Pierce's note is a rare clue to the fact.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS716].

[MS1257].          Raymond, Rossiter Worthington. Biographical Notice of Clarence King. In: Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 1903. Vol. 33. pp. 619-650. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #200     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1257].

[MS903].          Rodgers, Augustus Frederick.  Report to the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, the Honorable C.P. Patterson upon the Completion of the Special Duty of Erecting a Signal upon the Summit of Mount Shasta, California.  Oct. 12, 1875. Unpublished report, typescript copy of the original. Compiled and annotated by Davis E. Michael.     A. F. Rodgers was in charge of erecting an iron shaft and reflecting signal cone upon the summit of Mt. Shasta. His preliminary report and journal discussed John Muir and organizational concerns (see Rodgers May 8, 1875). The post-construction report of Oct. 12, 1875 gives exact details of the signal's design (pp. 2-4). Rodgers assembled "..a motley crowd of emigrants, quartz-prospectors, halfgrown men and Indians, 30 in all..." (p. 7) to aid his own engineers in the task of transporting and constructing the device. When the project was completed, Rodgers was able to say that: " could not fall until the shaft itself was destroyed; unless indeed a stroke of lightning, or an earthquake, may set at defiance my best precautions. The appearance of the signal, as seen from points near enough to notice its construction and position, is quite imposing and, in the bright sunlight, suggests a light-house tower with brilliant lamps burning." (p. 16).
      Rodgers himself spent several days upon the summit. His comments of the summit period are varied, though mostly he addresses practical concerns: "...placed the base bars in position and carefully levelled the base, first bolting the base ring and bars together, for trial, and then loosening the base ring bolts..." (p. 13). On occasion his comments are philosophical: "I could but think of the giant forces, that shaped the world, and of the unfathomed crucible, out of which poured this molten cone of lava" (p. 17). He even notes the unusual presence of animal life saying that: "During two mornings, while at work upon the summit, I was astonished to see a single squirrel run back and forth across the topmost verge of rocks, stop a few seconds in quiet astonishment at seeing the workmen, and then suddenly occurred to me that they must have been led by curiosity to follow over our unusually well marked trail up the mountain, for, as far as I could learn locally, no such animal had ever been seen alive before on the summit" (p. 18).
       Rodgers' two reports, of May 5 and Oct 8, 1875, together offer the most reliable account of this famous Mt. Shasta summit project.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS903].

[MS1264].          [Sacramento Union]. Height of Shasta Butte. In: Sacramento Union. Sacramento, Calif.: Aug. 28, 1861. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #245.    11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1264].

[MS1265].          [Sacramento Union]. Mount Shasta. In: Sacramento Union. Sacramento, Calif.: Sept. 4, 1861. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #246.    11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1265].

[MS1266].          [Sacramento Union]. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Sacramento Union. Sacramento, Calif.: Oct. 22, 1862. Discusses second-hand the ascent of Mount Shasta by Brewer and Whitney. Article affirms that Mount Shasta is the highest mountain in the United States.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1266].

[MS1268].          [Sacramento Union]. First Ascent of Mount Shasta with Mules. In: Sacramento Union. Sacramento, Calif.: Sept. 24, 1883. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #250.    11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1268].

[MS607].          [San Francisco Call]. Perilous Ascent of Mount Shasta by Sight-Seers. In: San Francisco Call. San Francisco, Calif.: July 13, 1888. Source: Stuhl I    bibliography     40. Find List/11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS607].

[MS500].          Severance, Mark Sibley. Climbing Shasta. In: Californian Illustrated Magazine. Aug., 1893. Vol. 4, No. 3. pp. 433-445. An account of the infrequently traveled "Edward Stewart route," led by Stewart himself: "Mr. Stewart had not been up the mountains since 1891, but he appeared to know the way so well and have such confidence in his ability to take us to the top, that we had little hesitation in trusting ourselves to his guidance. Our other guide was Wickham, another most trustworthy, energetic and capable man. He had been some twenty-five times up the short way, but never had tried the three-days' route, and was glad of the present opportunity" (p. 437). Their route took them via "Deer Springs," the "Devil's Garden...where we leave all trails behind us and turn south east," "Panther Creek," the "Gate," "Squaw Creek," crossing "Mud Creek," to "Lunch Rock," over the top of the "Ash Creek glacier," over the upper end of the" Whitney Glacier," and on to the summit of Mt. Shasta.
      Contains rare and excellent photographs of the party, comprised of four gentlemen and two ladies all mounted on horseback, as well as photos of the party on the summit.
      Note that this account contains more descriptive material about the personalities of the climbers than do most of the early climbing accounts. Each of the climbers is nicknamed: the Young Merchant, Herr Doctor, the Athlete, Capitano, Glorious Girl, etc. The personable narration includes comments such as: "Passing through the town of Sisson, with our long cavalcade, the three pack-animals tied together by their tails, our ladies with difficulty distinguishable from the men because of their mode of riding, we were a target for the local small boy's wit, which we endured with an equanimity tempered by the feeling that these urchins' voices were probably the last human sounds, outside or our own party, which we were to hear for three long days" (p. 437). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS500].

[MS54].          Sims, Perry. The Signal. In: The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society (Berryvale - Sisson - Mount Shasta Issue). 1981. Vol. 5. No. 4. pp. 126-134. Well-researched account of the scientific and logistical groundwork for the eventual placement in 1875 of a large reflective copper cone on the summit of Mount Shasta. Work was conducted for the Coastal Geodetic Survey. Much of the discussion centers on John Muir's role in the project. Contains a bibliography and diagrams of the cone. Note that the cone is now on display at the Sisson Museum in Mount Shasta City. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS54].

[MS2083].          [Sisson, J. H. The Monument on Mount Shasta: It is Out of Plumb and Looks as Though it Would Topple Over. In: Sisson Mascot. July 28, 1892.  (Geo. Roussel, artist)    Contains a long statement from J. H. Sisson given in response to the claim that the monument might topple over. Entire statement follows: “The monument is constructed of heavy galvanized iron, stands fifteen feet high and is nine feet in circumference.It is filled with stone and cement and is moored at the base by heavy brass arms, which are embedded in the rock. The metal alone weighs over 2000 pounds. The monument was erected in October 1878 under the supervision of of Cap. J. H. Rogers of the Coast Survey. I received $2200 for carrying the material for its construction to the top. The labor was performed mostly by Indians and consumed eight days. I cleared $1400 on the contract. The men made one and two trips a day from Horse camp, carrying loads weighing from 48 to 68 pounds each. The nickel plated copper cone that surmounts the monument stands three and a half feet high and weighed 85 pounds. This heavy and awkward shaped piece was carried to the summit by two bucks in a single day. The heaviest load ever carried to the top by one man was a sack of bolts weighing 87 pounds. This feat was also accomplished by an Indian. The great weight of the monument will prevent it from falling entirely over, even if it should encline more. The stone and cement in the monument extends about two-thirds of its height, giving the greatest weight to the base”. Note that is perhaps significant that the final top pieces of this highest mountain object were set in place by Native Americans. Also, this article is one of the few statements of J. H. Sisson to have been recorded.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS2083].

[MS797].          Speer, Robert. 'All My Blood Turned to Wine': Stories from a Storied Mountain. In : San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: May 28, 1989. p. 11. In 'This World,' a news magazine of the San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 1989. This was a special issue 24 pages long entitled 'A Mountain 'Lonely as God': Tales of Mount Shasta' and contains eight separate feature articles by seven authors.    Contains a review of the early ascents of Mt. Shasta. Illustrated with a photograph of Miss Alice Cousins atop the horse Jump Up at the summit, August 1893. Contains quotations from the works of John Muir, Joaquin Miller, William H. Brewer, and others.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS797].

[MS361].          Stanwood, Richard Goss 1830-1917. An Ascent of Mount Shasta in the Year 1861. In: California Historical Society Quarterly. Mar., 1927. Vol. 6. No. 1. pp. 69-76. Stanwood's original journals are in the collection of the Bancroft Library.     A party of six makes the ascent in August of 1861. On this trip Yreka resident Mr. Wm. S. Moses, who formerly was the Grand Master of San Francisco Golden Gate Lodge of the Free and Accepted Masons, carried a barometer and thermometers. The readings from these instruments later were used to calculate an altitude for Mount Shasta of a "little less than fourteen thousand feet." The author's description of the summit climb gives details of the nausea and fatigue so common to climbers at high altitude. Several place-names are given for the first time to camps made while on the ascent, including Camp Moses, and Camp Ross. They find "a great many memorials on the summit sowed among the rocks and all in excellent condition.....One bore the name of the only woman who ever reached the top, Mary J. White, Sept. 9, 1856."
      This article begins with a long account of the stage route and stage stops beginning in Marysville via Chico, Tehama, Cottonwood, Shasta [City], Tower House, French Gulch, Trinity Centre, Mountain House, Callahan's Ranch, Fort Jones, to Yreka. Details are given of meals and accommodations for several of the stops. From Yreka the Soda Springs stage was taken to Strawberry Valley, site of present-day Mt. Shasta City. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS361].

[MS897].          Stewart, Charles Lockwood 1907. Early Ascents of Mount Shasta. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. June, 1934. Vol. 19. No. 3. pp. 58-70. Thoroughly researched history of Mt. Shasta's early climbers. In addition to presenting his research into the early ascents, the author addresses several controversies. He verifies that there are two legal spellings, E. D. Pearce and E. D. Pierce, for the first person to reach Shasta's summit (pp. 60-61). The author denies that Joaquin Miller climbed Mt. Shasta in 1854 or 1858 (pp. 66-67). Presents the controversy which arose from Mr. W. S. Moses determination in 1861 that Mt. Shasta at 13,905 feet was considerably less high than the 19,000 feet supposed by the San Francisco Journal. (p. 68). See also C. L. Stewart Discovery and Exploration of Mt. Shasta 1929. 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS897].

[MS232].          Thompson, Gilbert.  [glaciers of Mount Shasta, 1883, a report]. In: Powell, John Wesley 1834-1902.  Fifth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1883-84 .  Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1885. pp. 332-334.   Thompson's report quoted in Israel I. Russell's chapter entitled 'Existing Glaciers of the United States' (pp. 303 - 355).     Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey states: "During a portion of the season of 1883 I was engaged in obtaining the topographical details of Mount Shasta, California, and take pleasure in furnishing such information as I can concerning the glaciers now existing on the mountain" (p. 332). Thompson gives clues as to place name usage of the time when he says about the Konwakiton (mud glacier) that: "When making the ascent by Sisson's southern foot-trail, just as the weary climber turns the 'Red Rocks' at 13,000 feet altitude, he is forced to make a short detour on the nŽvŽ of this glacier, which is usually separated from the wall of rock by a deep crevasse" (p. 333). Note that elsewhere in the book (p. 13) there is a brief but important introduction to the problems of weather encountered by Thompson's Mount Shasta topographic mapping survey in 1883. The topographic map which resulted from the season's work is found facing p. 330.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS232].

[MS619].          Thompson, Gilbert. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. July-Dec., 1895. 2nd Series Vol. 26. No. 151. pp. 108-109. Gilbert Thompson was in charge of the 1883 United States Coast and Geodetic survey of Mt. Shasta. In this letter of 1895 he describes how on Sept. 10, 1883, he and Tom Watson led two saddle mules, "Croppie" and "Dynamite," to the Mt. Shasta summit, using the Stewart trail. He says that: "If any one desires to repeat such an enterprise, take Stewart with you, if your animals are green in scrambling work among the rocks, give them a good shoeing with sharp shoes and then a little practice, and remember that you have to learn to be patient, 'don't rush,' and keep moving. The eastern side of Mount Shasta is very beautiful and interesting, and a party can find a great deal of interest and delight in the deep ca–ons, waterfalls, and glaciers. Several days can be profitably occupied before the ascent is attempted" (p. 109). 11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS619].

[MS1240].          United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.  Annual Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for the Years 1875, 1876, 1880.  Washington, D. C.: 1878-1882. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #64.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1240].

[MS23].          Whitney, Josiah Dwight 1819-1896.  On the Heights of the Highest Mountains of North America. In: Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences. Volume II. 1858-1862.  San Francisco, Calif.: California Academy of Natural Sciences, 1863. pp. 219-223.   This is an 1873 reprint of the '1854-1857 Proceedings' first published in a newspaper entitledThe Pacific.     This 1862 article by Josiah Dwight Whitney addresses the question: "Which is the highest Mountain in the United States, and which in North America?" Whitney concludes, by a process of deduction, that "If, then, Mt. Shasta is the highest mountain of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada range, it is almost certainly the highest point within the limits of the United States, as we have reason to believe that there are no peaks in the chains to the East of this as high as those which form the Western border of the Continent."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS23].

[MS625].          Whitney, Josiah Dwight 1819-1896.  Geology. Volume I.: Report of Progress and Synopsis of the Field-Work, from 1860 to 1864.  Philadelphia, Pa.: Sherman and Co., 1865. 'Published by Authority of the Legislature of California. 1865.'     Mt. Shasta is covered in detail in Section 12 (pp. 316-364) of Chapter 9 (pp. 212-363). The book as a whole represents the results of investigations by the California Geological Survey between the years 1860 and 1864. During those years Mt. Shasta was twice visited by Survey teams, and Whitney himself, who was the appointed State Geologist, ascended Mt. Shasta in 1862. The section on Mt. Shasta contains several detailed accounts of Whitney's personal enjoyment of exploring both Mt. Shasta and the Mt. Shasta region. Whitney's observations augment the published personal accounts of the Survey's assistant geologist William H. Brewer (see Brewer Up and Down California in 1860-1864 1975). The book as a whole is 498 pages long and is divided into two parts, Part I.: The Geology of the Coast Ranges, in seven chapters; and Part II. Geology of the Sierra Nevada, in four chapters.
      Whitney's classic personal account of his Sept., 1862 climb to the summit of Mt. Shasta has never been reprinted. A lengthy extract follows:
      "It was a bright moonlight night when our party made the ascent, the moon being about three days past the full, and we were able to pick our way over the snow without any difficulty; it was quite hard and rough, so that we did not slip on it much, especially as our boots were well provided with nails, which are decidedly better than 'creepers.' Those who had barometers to carry, of which two were taken up, found a sort of long walking-stick, or roughly improvised 'Alpenstšcke,' almost indispensable. We also took with us a small supply of eatables, and, what was more important, a large canteen of water, as the quenching of thirst by melting snow in the mouth is highly injurious. It may here be added, as a hint to mountain climbers, that the use of either wine or alcoholic beverages of any kind, when hard work is to be done, is not to be recommended, if our experience can be trusted. We wore thick clothing, and found it necessary at the summit, and not at all inconvenient in going up.
      "The first part of the climb, until we reached the height of 11,000 or 12,000 feet, was very easy, as we did not feel the effects of the rarified air, and the temperature was low enough to enable one to use his muscles actively without sensible perspiration. The air was still and the moon shone brilliantly on the snow in the gorge up which we were climbing, while the dark cliffs on either hand frowned majestically upon us. The most profound stillness prevailed. Our way led up a sort of ravine or gorge between two great buttresses of the mountain, one of which comes down from near the summit in a southerly direction, the other a little west of south. The bottom of this ravine was filled with snow to a great depth; the sides were formed by bare and precipitous masses of black lava, rising in lofty cliffs, topped by fantastic pinnacles of the same, hemming us in by a wall from 500 to 1000 feet in height.
      "The ravine rose at first with a moderate grade, but soon became exceedingly steep, the slope varying from 30¡ to 45¡. The surface of the snow formed longitudinal furrows, three or four feet in depth, with ridges in between, on which we walked, crossing from one to the other, or occasionally picking our way along the edge of the snow, on the fragments of lava which had fallen from above and which the snow did not rise high enough to cover. At daybreak we found ourselves pretty well up the mountain, and the 'Red Bluffs,' the highest point of the road which was in sight, and which is about 1200 feet below the summit, appearing to be close at hand, and almost to overhang our path; but hours of hard climbing were required before we should reach it. The angle of elevation of the ravine grew steeper and steeper as we mounted upwards, and the surface of the snow rougher and rougher, so that we were continually edging off on to the talus of rocks in the hope of finding relief; but scrambling over the loose blocks of rough lava was found even more fatiguing than slipping about on the snow.
      "At length, with frequent stoppages for breath, of which the supply seemed to grow very scanty after we passed the altitude of 10,000 feet or thereabouts, we reached, at about 10 o'clock, the 'Red Bluffs,' a low wall formed by the edge of a mass of rudely stratified volcanic breccia, having a reddish tinge which contrasts strongly with the dark gray, almost black color, of the mass of the mountain, this dark shade being intensified by contrast with the dazzling whiteness of the snow. Climbing this wall of rock, which was effected without difficulty, our course was now nearly at right-angles to our former one, and over a much less steep slope, for a distance of about two miles, which brought us to a rudely circular and nearly level area, evidently the bottom of the ancient crater, along the eastern edge of which rises a broken ridge with very abrupt sides forming the summit of the mountain, and apparently the remains of the edge of the lip of the crater. In passing over the snow-covered slope before reaching the level area, considerable difficulty was experienced in crossing with the barometers over a wide space on which the snow, here almost icy in its texture, was laid in sharp ridges, running in the direction of the prevailing winds and inclining towards the sun, forming a series of knife-edges, with crevices between deep enough to let one down to the depth of from one to three feet. Across these we had to step as best we could, knowing that a single fall would bring sure destruction to our instruments. The dogs, which accompanied us to the summit, gave most unmistakable signs of entire disgust along this part of the route. However, this difficult, but not dangerous, ground was passed, and the level area noticed above was reached at 11 1/2 o'clock.
      "On one side of this flat space, just at the edge of the high wall, the remains of the edge of the crater, there are several orifices from which steam and sulphurous gases are constantly escaping, and around which is a considerable deposit of sulphur, some of it being handsomely crystallized. It is in fact a small solfatara, and the last remains of the once mighty volcanic agencies which have piled up this now extinct volcano to a height nearly 4000 feet greater than that of Etna, the monarch of the Mediterranean.
      "The summit of the mountain, which is about 400 feet above the hot springs, was reached by all the party before 12 o'clock, and both barometers hung up in safety in a sheltered nook about eighteen feet below the highest point" (pp. 338-341).
      Many more pages of Whitney's Mt. Shasta descriptions are to be found in the book. Notable is his statement of the naming of "Cone Mountain" [Black Butte]; he says "One of these conical mountains, which was much higher than any of the others, and which lay close at the western base of Mount Shasta, was so beautifully regular in its outline that we gave it the name of Cone Mountain. It is a conspicuous object from Strawberry Flat, and is no insignificant hill itself..." (p. 345). Whitney notes the ascent of Cone Mountain: "By mistake, the summit was not reached, but the point next west of it -that next to the left hand of the highest peak, in the diagram..." An excellent drawing of Cone Mountain appears on page 346. Other illustrations depict the "Castle Rock Range" (p. 331), an outline diagram of Mt. Shasta (p. 343), and Clarence King's drawing of Mt. Lassen (p. 314).
       Whitney also notes that from the Shasta Valley one can see the existence of fissures, "like crevasses" in the snow fields near the summit of Mount Shasta, but he states that " real glaciers are formed, as there would be, undoubtedly, if rain and snow fell during the summer"(p. 351).
      Whitney devotes considerable space to a discussion of the determination of the height of Mt. Shasta. In 1857 Whitney had thought Mt. Shasta to be the highest peak in the continental U. S. By 1865, in this book, he writes: "We may still maintain, as being probably true, and certainly so, as far as actual measurements made up to the present time show, that Mount Shasta is higher than any of the volcanic peaks to the north, in the Cascade Range, although inferior in elevation to one or more of the great granitic masses of the Sierra Nevada in the central part of the State" (p. 348).
      There is a wealth of material on the geology of Northern California to be found in the pages of this book. Small details are often important, as for example, Whitney's adopting the name of "Lassen's Peak" for Lassen's Butte, and in the process setting a trend away from the use of the word "Butte." He says: "This is the volcanic mass designated as Mt. St. Joseph on the Pacific Railroad Maps; but it is universally known, in California, as Lassen's Butte, or Peak; we prefer the English word, especially as the French one is not properly used, when applied to a high mountain. A 'butte,' according to the dictionary of the French Academy, is a 'petite elevation de terre,' or a 'petit tertre;' 'knoll' would be the exact translation of it"(p. 310).     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS625].

[MS24].          Whitney, Josiah Dwight 1819-1896.  [height of Mount Shasta (14,440 ft.) as determined by the State Geological Survey of California.]. In: Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences. Volume III. 1863-1867.  San Francisco, Calif.: California Academy of Natural Sciences, 1868. pp. 25, 325-327, 329 .   This is an 1868 reprint of the '1863-1867 Proceedings' first published in a newpaper called 'The Pacific.'     Contains a reference, in a report by Whitney, to a measurement of Mount Shasta made by the State Geological Survey of California: "...the most interesting operation in this department was the determination of the height of Mount Shasta, which, by an elaborate series of observations, we found to be 14,440 feet above the sea level. This is the first of the lofty volcanic peaks of the Sierra Nevada which has been accurately measured" (p. 25).
      Another report in this volume augments a Whitney report of 1857 (which addressed the question: Which is the highest Mountain in the United States, and in North America? He there concluded, by a process of deduction, that "If, then, Mt. Shasta is the highest mountain of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada range, it is almost certainly the highest point within the limits of the United States, as we have reason to believe that there are no peaks in the chains to the East of this as high as those which form the Western border of the Continent.") This updated report states that "Finally, Professor Whitney concluded that we have as yet no satisfactory evidence to invalidate the statement made previously by him..." (pp. 325-327).
     This volume of proceedings also makes reference to a trip in 1866 by the well-known botanist Alphonso Wood "past the base of Mount Shasta" (p. 328).      11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS24].

[MS550].          Whitney, Josiah Dwight 1819-1896.  [letter to Mrs. Whitney, Sept., 14, 1862, from camp at the base of Mt. Shasta describing the ascent of the mountain]. In: Brewster, Edwin Tenney.  Life and Letters of Josiah Dwight Whitney.  Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909. pp. 223-228.   Long letter which contains Whitney's own account of climbing Mt. Shasta: "We left camp at Strawberry Thursday morning, and arrived at the snow line in the afternoon; and after a hasty dinner, turned in to our blankets early, so as to be ready for a start at 3 o'clock the next morning. Mr. Hoffmann, who has been quite sick recently, concluded that he would not try to go to the summit; so he remained in camp to observe the barometers, and Mr. Brewer, Mr. Averill, and I, with our so-called guide and two others who had joined us for the fun of the thing, constituted the party. We were on foot soon after three and commenced the ascent by following up the snow in one of the deep gorges or valleys of the mountain. As we went up, it began to be harder and harder work, and when the sun rose we found that although we had come up a great height, there was still a greater one to be overcome. In front of us, seemingly but a little way off, were the so-called Red Bluffs over which we were to climb, and which was the highest point of our route which we could see; but we seemed to be forever in getting to them. Below an altitude of 10,000 feet, it went pretty easily, but the last 4000 demanded of me, at least, frequent stoppages to get breath. I felt relieved always after a few minutes; but the sensation of relief lasted only a very short time, and after a few steps more of climbing, I had to stop again to get breath. Thus the higher we got the slower we went; but all of us reached the summit, one after the other, I last but one, and our guide last of all. On the summit all looked rather tired and some were soon quite sick...I felt dull and heavy, and a little sleepy, but had no headache or pain, although I did not desire to eat much. Some looked almost black, and all had their eyes more or less bloodshot. The blood settled under our finger-nails, and I had the ends of the fingers of the hand with which I supported the barometer all the way up, slightly frost-bitten...We were at the top of the mountain at just about 12 o'clock. We suspended our two barometers, which Mr. Brewer and I had brought up unbroken, and found that the mercurial column stood at about 17 1/2 inches, which would give roughly a height of between 14,000 and 15,000 feet. We shall not have the exact height above the sea-level for some time, but it is about 14,5000 feet-and 500 feet higher than the Finster Aar Horn, the highest mountain in Switzerland" (pp. 225-227).
      Whitney later determined that Mt. Shasta was the highest mountain in North America (see Whitney 1857, 1868). See also Brewer Up and Down California 1974 for another description of the same climb.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS550].

[MS225].          Wilkins, Thurman 1915.  Clarence King: A Biography, Revised and Enlarged Edition.  Albuquerque, N. M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1988. First edition published in 1958.     A substantially revised 1988 edition of the highly regarded 1958 first edition. The author states that "...after thirty years, the time has come for a new edition of Clarence King to take advantage of intervening scholarship and certain manuscript materials that I missed the first time around...My revisions have required no major surgery on the text...No doubt the most significant difference lies in the addition of numerous details, amounting to nearly thirty-five thousand words..."
      Mount Shasta chapters are entitled "Shasta, Here We Come" (pp. 40-56) and "Mountaineering" (pp. 139-166). The author reconstructs both Clarence King's first visit to Mt. Shasta in 1863, and King's first climb of the mountain which took place in 1870. The author weaves into a single narrative several quotations from several of King's own accounts of the 1870 climb: "Three days slipped by in preparation for the climb, and the morning of September 11 dawned clear and cold. King's party rode on mules as far as the animals could carry them. Then with shoulder packs they toiled to the top of the secondary crater, later named Shastina. It was neither a perilous nor a taxing climb, but it gave King a sense of expansion such as he gained from all high elevations, 'the instant and lasting reward' of his labors. The height had a strange effect on his perception of time and space. 'The hours hurry by with singular swiftness. Minutes or miles are nothing; days and degrees seem best fitted for ones thoughts.' He gazed down into the gorge that yawned between Shastina and the main peak, and what he saw there wiped out for the time his abiding interest in volcanism. Before him lay a field of ice, sweeping down and around the cone on which he stood, its face torn with blue crevasses. The view recalled the autumn of 1863 when he and Brewer had seen the turbid rill on the eastern flank of the mountain, something that had haunted King for years. They had spoken of glaciers then, and Brewer had ruled them out on the sides of Shasta. But now King had no doubt that here indeed was one. No doubt whatever, though Dana, FrŽmont, Brewer, and Whitney had all failed to see it on their visits to the peak. Whitney, Dana, and Agassiz had even declared that no true glaciers remained inside the United States, exclusive of Alaska. But there the monster lay, at least three miles of it, a 'shattered chaos of blue blocks.' King named it Whitney Glacier in tribute to his former chief" (pp. 142-143).
      Wilkins includes a description King wrote in a letter to George Frederick Wright, about standing on one of the Mt. Shasta glaciers: "I was attracted by a sudden grating and rushing sound in the middle of the region of debris and witnessed a very interesting phenomenon. The ice which underlaid the moraine blocks had evidently melted from the percolation of warm streams and the access of air through either moulins or crevasses. The rotten ice gave way under the load of debris and thousands of tons of rock sank down, leaving a conical pit a hundred yards in diameter and not less than a hundred feet deep" (p. 144).
      Contains extensive notes and bibliographies. Many manuscript collections are cited.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  [MS225].

[MS633].          [Yreka Journal]. Altitude of Shasta Butte. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: Aug. 18, 1861. Vol. 6, p. 3. Brief notice that Mr. Moses plans to take a barometer to the summit of Mt. Shasta.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS633].

[MS1041].          [Yreka Journal]. Hight of Shasta Butte. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: Aug. 25, 1861.  Entire article reads: "Hight of Shasta Butte-Mr. W. S. Moses of this city, accompanied by Noah Brooks esq. of the Marysville Appeal, and several other gentlemen, returned on Thursday evening from a trip to the summit of Shasta Butte. The whole party, nine in number, succeeded in reaching the summit. Mr. Moses took up with him instruments for ascertaining the altitude of the Butte, and succeeded in accomplishing his object. He is the first person who has taken the altitude from the summit. According to Mr. Moses' figures, the hight of Mount Shasta above the level of the sea, 12, 995 feet. This is considerably less than is given by either Humbolt of Fremont, but the figures of Mr. Moses are probably nearer correct than either of the other estimates."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS1041].

[MS630].          [Yreka Journal]. Lecture on Shasta Butte. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: Aug. 29, 1861. Vol. 7, p. 5. Consists of a notice that Reverend J.  W.  Ross and his wife were moving from Yreka, and that: 'His last discourse was an elegant lecture on Shasta Butte.'  Camp Ross on Mt. Shasta was a name at one time used by some of his fellow climbers.     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS630].

[MS631].          [Yreka Journal]. Ascending Mount Shasta. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: July 27, 1866. Vol. 13, No. 52, p. 3. One paragraph article explaining that many persons undertaking the ascent of Mt. Shasta are not making the summit on account of the "slippery crust on the snow."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS631].

[MS632].          [Yreka Journal]. Shasta Butte. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: Aug, 3, 1866. Vol. 14, p. 3. The entire article reads: "Shasta Butte.--The party which left two weeks ago to ascend Shasta Butte failed to reach the top; but a party consisting of J. C. Carroll, F. E. Ensign and J. H. Sisson, succeeded in getting up by following the ridge towards the crater, a new route never before traveled. They found snow all the way, but had no great difficulty in getting up except badly burning their faces from the sun's reflection upon the snow. The crater side has generally been regarded as impossible on account of its steepness."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century.  MS632].

[MS1278].          [Yreka Union]. Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: Yreka Union. Yreka, Calif.: Aug. 18, 1866. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #307.    Stewart states: "Found regalia of the ladies of the temple of Honor placed on the summit in 1856...."     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1278].

[MS1279].          [Yreka Union]. Ladies on the Butte. In: Yreka Union. Yreka, Calif.: Sept. 15, 1866. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #308.    Stewart states: 'The second ascent of Mrs. Eddy.'     11. Mountaineering: 19th Century/40. Find List.  MS1279].


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