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Mount Shasta
Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 12

Mountaineering: 20th Century

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The 20th Century brought changes to the Mt. Shasta climbing experience: mountain marathons, mountaineering clubs, new roads, and a new mountain hut. The entries in this section have no easily discernible common thread, except of course, for the hint of challenge and adventure inherent in climbing a peak more than 4,000 meters high. Among the more unusual entries are G. H. Fitch's account of a 1903 climb accompanied by a distinguished East Indian swami-mountaineer, F. H. McNeil's 1915 account of the contents of the crammed-full record box on Shasta's summit, Edward Stuhl's journal of his first attempt climbing for the summit in 1917, and Paul McHugh's story of Reverend Douglas Smith's 1971 war protest from the summit of Mt. Shasta. The 20th Century accounts of climbing Mt. Shasta record a wide variety of climbers and climbing motivations.

The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS890].          Backus, Minna. A Moonlight Glissade. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1915. Vol. 4. No. 4. p. 25. A prose account of Mazama mountaineers night-time 'tobogganing' with alpenstocks, canvas sliders, and wash basins, on the slopes of Mt. Shasta above the timberline near Horse Camp. Contains the comment that: "For eight of us it was the last night in camp and it was rather sober thoughts that we lay on our beds of boughs and looked up through the trees at the Mountain, now no longer a stranger to us, but an old friend ..." 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS890].

[MS547].          Beasley, Douglas. I Climbed Mount Shasta in Midwinter. In: Sunset Magazine. Jan., 1930. pp. 36-37. A solo ascent on Christmas day, 1929. The author describes the Horse Camp cabin where he stayed snowbound for a short time after the successful ascent. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS547].

[MS639].          Bent, Allen H. A Visit to the Higher Mountains of California and Colorado. In: Appalachia. Oct., 1914. Vol. 13. No. 2. pp. 103-114. Contains an account of a summit climb made on Aug. 13, 1913. Of the summit the author says: "We were held up by clouds for an hour and a half on a ridge near Thumb Rock, at an altitude of about 12,500 feet, and the rest of the way breasted a terrific gale, with the thermometer several degrees below freezing. We were actually blown on to the summit, and dared not look over the steep eastern slope. Our stay was limited to five minutes, during which time we resolved ourselves into a debating club." The group quickly sided with arguments in favor of descent (p. 109). Bent also climbed Mt. Whitney, Mount Hood, and Colorado's Mt. Massive during the same summer. The article contains a full-page photograph of Mt. Shasta. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS639].

[MS891].          Bronaugh, Jerry E. Mount Shasta Outing, 1915. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1915. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 5-9. This is the introductory article to a special issue devoted to a mountaineering club's 1915 outing to Mt. Shasta. The official climb of the mountain took place on July 16, 1915. The author explains that: "Although Mazamas is a club devoted to the 'exploration of snow peaks and other mountains, especially in the Pacific Northwest,' and although Mt. Shasta is not, strictly speaking, in the Northwest, nevertheless, the Club has visited the mountain twice--once in 1904 when seventeen enthusiasts registered for the outing, and again in 1915 when seventy-six went forward to its conquest" (p. 5). He continues: "But especially does there seem some subtle charm about Mt. Shasta attaching to no other mountain, and it is this charm which has induced Mazamas, although the mountain lies far out of Mazama's usual itinerary..." (p. 6). The large group of Mazamas traveled to Sisson [Mt. Shasta City] from Portland in a chartered special train. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS891].

[MS19].          Burhenne, Hans Joachim.  Sierra Spring Ski-Touring.  San Francisco, Calif.: Mountain Press, 1971. Contains instructions for skiing from the summit down on Mt. Shasta. Also contains two excellent Mt. Shasta photographs by the author. Both photographs show the Avalanche Gulch drainage and the true summit of the mountain (pp. 38-39). Only two pages of text are devoted to Mount Shasta, with minimal detail of the ski route from the summit down. The book is for experienced mountaineers. Quote: "Mount Shasta is one of the big ones and to be treated with respect by the touring skier. It also requires an early start at about 4 A.M." (p. 38). Also contains text and photographs of ski touring at Mt. Lassen (pp. 40-41).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS19].

[MS479].          Cass, Beata Werdenhoff. Two Women Complete Climb to Shasta Summit. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Aug. 11, 1937. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS479].

[MS641].          Clyde, Norman. Up Mount Shasta from the East. In: Westways. Apr., 1936. Vol. 28. pp. 24-25. The author and a group of about eight people, including leader Oliver Kehrlein, and two members of the Boston-based Appalachian Club, climbed up the Mud Creek Canyon, crossed the Wintun Glacier, and made the summit. Includes photographs. One photo caption reads "First men to climb Mt. Shasta from the east!" 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS641].

[MS1144].          Clyde, Norman.  [letter to A. F. Eichorn, Mar. 3, 1955, concerning ascents of Mt. Shasta].  1955. Four-page letter to the author of the "Mt. Shasta Story." Norman Clyde was a famed mountaineer who in 1923 set a new time record for the "Mt. Shasta Marathon" (see also "Dedication Shasta Alpine Lodge" in Sierra Club Circular Sept., 1923).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1144].

[MS935].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991. News from the Timber Line. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: July 29, 1937. Weekly column appearing at least as early as July 29, 1937 and continuing at least until July 18, 1940, perhaps longer.    Consists of weekly accounts of the visiting climbers attempting to scale Mt. Shasta.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS935].

[MS1209].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991. Name Ridge for Sargent is Suggested. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Jan. 11, 1940. W. B. Cooke describes Mr. Sargent's pride in packing lunches up a ridge route for the Forest Service. Cooke states: "I was sorry to read in a recent issue of the Herald of the death of George Sargent....With the opening of the Panther Creek area this route will be used more and more. People will surely hang a name on it. Why not memorialize Mr. Sargent by naming this ridge after him?" Cooke continues his suggestion with particulars about the Ridge spurs.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1209].

[MS678].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991. Record Climbs of Mount Shasta. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. 1942. Vol. 27. No. 4. pp. 130-131. Cooke details the history of rapid ascents of Mt. Shasta. The climbers mentioned are Muir in 1874, Babcock in 1880, Clyde in 1923, McCoy in 1923 and 1924, and Lawyer in 1924. On July 5, 1924 a contest was held, with Lawyer reaching the summit in 2 hours and 24 minutes and McCoy in 2 hours and 37 minutes. The details of the climbing strategies by McCoy and Lawyer are discussed, including the use of two different pairs of shoes carried by McCoy for different parts of the climb. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS678].

[MS537].          Coyle, Jenny. At 81, He's Still Undaunted by the Mountain. In: Siskiyou Viewer. Sept. 5, 1984. Orvis Agee is something of a legend to the climbers of Mt. Shasta. He climbed the mountain to the top for the first time at age 59, and has climbed it at least 25 times since then. He is quoted as saying: "The main thing is, I'm an old man doing things an old man doesn't usually do."  Contains photographs. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS537].

[MS555].          Davidson, R. J. The Ascent of Shastina. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1915. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 23-24. An account of one of several side-trips made by members of the Mt. Shasta 1915 outing of the Mazama group. Led by Dr. Carl Barck of Saint Louis, this ascent of Shastina was accomplished from Horse Camp to the saddle between Mt. Shasta and the Shastina cone. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS555].

[MS556].          Davis, Marcus. Shasta in a Storm. In: Trails. 1921. Vol. 1. No. 2. pp. 47-50. Published by the California Alpine Club.     An account of a late Spring, 1920, ascent of Mt. Shasta. The author and his companions encountered strong winds on top of Mt. Shasta:"It showed no abatement for the sake of our pleasant company, but rather rushed from us, hooting and whizzing. No living person could have endured any length of time under such conditions. Our attempt to observe the surroundings was frustrated by the havoc-dealing fury that shook the very foundation of this mighty peak, causing us to waver and totter" (p. 49).  12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS556].

[MS279].          Eastman, Don. Shasta's Wintun Glacier. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. 1969. p. 41. 75th Anniversary Issue.     A brief one page account of a two day climb on July 5 -6, 1969 to the summit of Mount Shasta. This was the Mazama's first official party up the east face of Mount Shasta. After the summit was gained they  "descended 3,000 feet in as perfect a whiteout as any of us had ever seen. Wands, placed earlier during beautifully clear weather, were a great help on the descent" (p. 41). 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS279].

[MS484].          Fitch, George Hamlin 1852-1915. How to Climb Shasta. In: Sunset Magazine. Oct., 1903. Vol. 11. No. 6. pp. 529-536. Climbing account which contains many diverse aspects. The author begins with a comparison of Mt. Shasta to Mt. Fuji: "Mount Shasta is familiar to all Californians, as it lends itself easily to photography and it rises from a plain with almost the perfection of outline of the sacred Fuji-yama of Japan..." (p. 529).  One of the author's fellow climbers, also seen in a group photograph (p. 533), was Swami Ram of India. Fitch states that: "The latter is a famous mountain climber, who declared that he had ascended the Himalayas to the height of 24,000 feet" (p. 532) and that: "The East Indian Swami was a remarkable example of endurance, as he ate and drank next to nothing on the entire trip. Meat, bread, eggs, coffee and tea were taboo for him, and he ate only a little fruit and vegetables" (p. 533). Most of the article is concerned with the route from Horse Camp and the rigors endured by the group. One of the climbers was the resident Sisson photographer C. R. Miller, whose photographs accompany the article. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS484].

[MS1222].          Fountain, Paul.  The Eleven Eaglets of the West.  London: J. Murray, 1906. By "the eleven eaglets of the west" the British author is referring to the eleven western states of the United States. California is one of those states, and several pages (pp. 31-39) are devoted to the Mt. Shasta region and to climbing the mountain. Guided by an Indian, and with six people in all, the author reached the summit region but not the actual summit. He participated in a few informal experiments on the summit region: "The sulphurous emanations from these fissures was very strong, and on a stone attached to 40 yards of string (unfortunately all we had with us) being lowered into one of them without finding bottom, in a short time both stone and string were covered with a film of apparently pure sulphur" (pp. 34-35). The author chooses a gracious approach to his description of the view from the summit: "Looking southward over a sea of rocks and peaks the scene was grand beyond description, and I cannot attempt to map it; the thousand details necessary to give a faint idea of the varied shapes and groupings of the mountains, could only result in confusion to a mind not actually drinking in the wondrous panorama" (p. 36).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1222].

[MS1238].          Gannett, Samuel Stinson and Baldwin, David Henry.  Spirit Leveling in California, 1896-1907 Inclusive.  Washington, D. C.: 1908. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #59     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1238].

[MS2187].          Graves, C. Edward.  Our Search for Wilderness: The Story of a Sixty Year Marriage.  Hicksville, N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1975. 224 pp.; 21cm.   "With Contributions by his wife, Emily."     Contains a chapter entitled: Our Family-Mount Shasta (pp. 209-215). The author's son, Ted Graves, and son's family live in Mount Shasta City; their careers are discussed. Note that this chapter includes brief excerpts from a journal the author wrote entitled: 'Mount Shasta Diary: Summer of 1944' which is an engaging account of a summer on Mount Shasta photographing the features of the mountain. Back cover dustjacket photograph of C. Edward Graves (in his ninetieth year) on Lake Siskiyou in northern California with Mount Shasta in background, photograph by Ted Graves.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS2187].

[MS455].          Hardesty, William P. Physical Geography of Mount Shasta Region. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1915. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 17-18. The author, one of several members of the Mazama Mt. Shasta outing of 1915, explains his disappointment with Mt. Shasta: "The absence of living streams and of flowers and heather at the lesser altitudes, and the scantiness of glacier life on Mt. Shasta itself, combined to cause a dearth of the attractiveness in side trips more customarily afforded the Mazamas on their annual outings.....To sum up, it may be stated that the Mazamas, on their Shasta trip, had an environment of physiographic and botanical conditions quite different from what they had experienced in the Pacific Northwest, and it is only fair to say they will be more than satisfied to return to the latter" (p. 18). 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS455].

[MS1031].          Johnson, Steven R. Edward Stuhl: Shasta's Perennial Advocate. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. Summer, 1987. pp. 53-57. Article begins: "No one is more aware of Mt. Shasta's plight or more intimately acquainted with its history than ninety year old Edward Stuhl. He has lived with the mountain for fifty years now, and it is doubtful that the 14,000-foot volcano will ever have a more informed spokesman" (p. 53). Contains a brief history of Edward Stuhl's conservation efforts. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1031].

[MS1253].          Jones, Rufus Matthew. Mt. Shasta Revisited. In: The Homiletic Review. 1926. Vol. 101. pp. 111-112. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #186.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1253].

[MS488].          Kehrlein, Oliver. Midwinter Ascents of Shasta and Lassen. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. Feb., 1933. Vol. 18. No. 1. pp. 128-130. After a successful ascent of Mt. Lassen the author and climbing partners try for the summit of Mt. Shasta. The author states: "Not so simple and hospitable have we found Shasta. Five consecutive winters our party attacked its frozen peak in March and each time met with reverses. Finally, the day of our climb came between two storms, and victory was ours." The author recalls the earlier attempts and he remarks that on one occasion: "...we slipped and slid and hacked thousands upon thousands of steps, when the whole mountain was glare ice from Horse Camp to Misery Hill." On the successful attempt he found that: "The snow about the summit and in the crater has been fashioned by the wind into fields and banks of long, attenuated, fern-like forms that often extend for several feet. They present the appearance of acres of ghostly ferns bent by the wind and frozen in place." 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS488].

[MS576].          Knowles, Eugene Call. To the Summit of Mount Shasta. In: Overland Monthly. Apr., 1905. 2nd Series Vol. 45. Vol. 4. pp. 335-340. An account of a 1904 summit climb. Contains a photograph of Horse Camp at timberline, showing a small building, and a large horse corral one hundred yards or more in diameter. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS576].

[MS2112].          Koch, Felix J. On Mt. Shasta's Top. In: The Pacific Coast Magazine. Oct. 1909. pp. 23-24. Article about the summit register. "One of the most interesting books ever penned in California is a plain covered little volume which laid, year in and year out, decade upon decade, away up on the top of Mt. Shasta." Contains many interesting anecdotes, two of which complain about having no whiskey at the top. Ends with : "In fact, the booklet is really a list of pluky heroes." 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS2112].

[MS266].          Koch, Felix John 1882. Scaling Mt. Shasta: A Novel Vacation Jaunt. In: Overland Monthly. Feb., 1907. 2nd Series Vol. 49. No. 3. pp. 127-135. Contains an unusually detailed biography of J. H. Sisson, concluding with the statement that: "Old man Sisson became, thence on, in a sense the warder of Mt. Shasta" (p. 127). Discusses the summit register comments of Sisson, King, Powell, and Muir. Mentions old Indian Jim on the summit "who signs his x mark" (p. 130). Several paragraphs are devoted to the mountain guide Indian Charlie who was "the exception among Indians in regard to climbing" (p. 134). Charlie says : "My uncle told me the Indian come by the waters, and that washed him up on Mt. Shasta, but if the tribes live there they are washed down" (p. 135). Contains full-page photographs of the mountain. The author explains that of Mount Shasta: "there have been movements to make a national park out of it, for fifty miles in either direction, but the timber men have acquired forestry rights that will probably preclude this for some time to come" (p. 128). 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS266].

[MS1255].          Lauper, Hans. Shasta und Shastina. In: Die Alpen: Monatschrift des Schweizer Alpenclub. 1925. Vol. 1. pp. 241-253. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #190.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1255].

[MS1150].          Lawyer, David A.  [letter to A. F. Eichorn, April 1, 1955, concerning Sierra Club Mount Shasta Marathon Race of 1925].  1955. Typescript copy, 7 pp.     Memoirs including a review of the author's training and unusual physical capabilities.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1150].

[MS1231].          Lirsch, Otto. Eine Nacht am Gipfel des Mount Shasta. In: Der Naturfreund. Mar., 1935. pp. 6-10. 'Der Naturfreund. Zurich, Schweiz' Source: Stuhl s664      Stuhl says: 'Lirsch eulogizes John Muir; walks from Redding to Shasta and Climbs the mountain; translates into German Muir's A perilous Night on Shasta's Summit.' 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1231].

[MS735].          Marshall, A. H. A Mountaineering Marathon. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1931. Vol. 13. No. 12. pp. 63-71. Contains a brief but interesting description of the upper regions of Mt. Shasta. The author states: "June 26 and 27 three men had attempted to climb but were driven back by storms. During the storms the blowing fog had frozen and built up ice formations all over the upper snow fields and the Red Cliffs, which resembled feathers in form more than anything else I can compare them with. The effect was the most beautiful thing of its kind I ever expect to see" (p. 64). 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS735].

[MS493].          Marshall, Emma Seckle. Climbing Mount Shasta. In: San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: Aug. 19, 1900. p. 21. Source: Stuhl bibliography; Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #220    40. Find List/12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS493].

[MS1251].          Maurer, Oscar. Around Mt. Shasta In Winter. In: Sunset. 1901. Vol. 6. no. 5. pp. 142-144. Three paragraph article concerning 25 members of the California Camera Club who come to Mt. Shasta in Winter. Includes photographs. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1251].

[MS580].          McAdie, Alexander G. Mt. Rainier, Mt. Shasta, and Mt. Whitney as Sites for Meteorological Observatories. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. 1906. Vol. 6. No. 1. pp. 7-14. The authors detail their search for suitable sites for weather research. They state that in 1903 the summit of Mt. Whitney was surveyed. During the summer of 1905 Mt. Rainier and Mt. Shasta were surveyed. On all three occasions "Mercurial barometers, a boiling-point thermometer, wet-and -dry bulb thermometer, and other apparatus were carried to each summit."
      Professor Joseph Le Conte, one of California's most distinguished geologists, checked the readings on all three summits.
      Several factors of site selection are discussed, including the presence of powerful winds, in particular the "norther of the Great Valley," which could destroy any instrumentation left in place.
      Details are given for the calculations of the altitude of Mt. Shasta. Six readings of the barometric pressure were taken, mean pressure averaged at 17.993 inches. Boiling point measurements were determined to be 187.7¡F, or an equivalent pressure of 18.080 inches. Equivalent readings at sea level in Eureka and San Francisco averaged at 30.000 inches.  The height was thus calculated at approximately 14, 200 feet. The previous U.S.G.S. estimate was 14, 380 feet. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS580].

[MS677].          McAllister, Matthew Hall.  Reports of Committees: Shasta Alpine Lodge. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. 1923. Vols. 11. No. 4. pp. 338-440. Contains the details of the construction of the Sierra Club Lodge on Mt. Shasta. The author discusses contributions of materials, expenses, site selections, volunteers, etc. Illustrated with three full-page glossy black and white photographs.
      Other M. Hall McAllister Sierra Club committee reports on the Shasta Alpine Lodge can be found (1923-1944) in:   Vol. 12: pp. 83-85, 187-188; 13: pp. 71-72; 14: pp. 76-77;  20: pp. 100-101  [see also the following unverified volumes: Vol. 15: pp. 104-105; 16: pp. 95-96; 18: pp. 106-107; 19: pp. 78-79]. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS677].

[MS676].          McAllister, Matthew Hall and Olberman, Joseph Macatee 1862. Shasta Alpine Lodge. Reports of Committees. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. 1927. Vol.12. No. 4. pp. 414-415. This committee report contains several interesting points. The authors state that "A memorial fountain, in honor of the pioneer J. H. Sisson, was built this summer. It is of stone, ten feet in diameter, thirty inches deep, and is surmounted by a marble plaque bearing Sisson's name and date of erection." Also: "A lawn was planted in front of the lodge and some fifty plants presented by Mr. John MacLaren, of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, from a collection of rhododendrons and other plants sent from the Himalayas, from an elevation of 15,000 feet. It will be most interesting to see if these will thrive on Shasta's soil and stand her winter snows and summer frosts." The authors also report the discovery of a confirmed find of antelope bones at the 14, 000 foot level. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS676].

[MS799].          McHugh, Paul. The Pastor and the Peak: A Minister Lived Alone on Shasta to Make His Point About the Vietnam War. In : San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: May 28, 1989. pp. 13, 17. In 'This World,' a news magazine of the San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 1989. This was a special issue 24 pages long entitled 'A Mountain 'Lonely as God':Tales of Mount Shasta' and contains eight separate feature articles by seven authors.    The author writes that: "On June 11, 1971, the Reverend Douglas Smith, 35, climbed Mount Shasta to protest the Vietnam War. His intention was to live for a year atop the mountain above 14,000 feet-the same length of time that drafted American boys were obliged to endure the maelstrom of violence in Indochina. 'I'd done demonstrations against the war in Etna-my little town of 700 people-but it wasn't satisfying,' Smith recalls. 'Then one night, gazing into the fire, I saw that Mount Shasta was the dominant symbol of all Northern California. You couldn't miss it. And as a dormant volcano, it was a natural peace symbol. Its got more power than nuclear bombs, yet sits there quite peaceful and beautiful in the hands of the creator.....The site of Smith's harsh alpine hermitage was just 160 feet below the peak...within days, winds too strong to stand against beat his stout tent into a heap...One stinging message that reached him from the valley floor...the county should not spend a dime of public funds trying to rescue him....With Smith's increasing notoriety came national media attention...'I dropped 35 pounds of unnecessary weight'...supporters asking the preacher to abandon his protest...After three continuous months in the sterile realm of light, Smith left his lofty hermitage....reporters asked Smith if he was losing face by abandoning his vigil. Not at all, he stoutly replied. 'The United States can do the same thing about getting out of Vietnam.'....'Sometime after I came down, I got stopped by a highway patrolman in Yreka for a missing taillight. After he found out who I was, he frankly told me that, during the days of my protest, if he'd gotten me in the sights of a scoped rifle with no one around, he probably would've shot me. He didn't agree with what I was saying, at all. But he'd read everything he could on what I was doing and why. He felt I was serious, and after I came down he admired what I'd done. And I thought, the mountain was perfect for that. Being able to use it as a magnified way of addressing people-that's the stuff of dreams' " (pp. 13, 17).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS799].

[MS586].          McNeil, F. H. Some Facts About Mount Shasta. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1915. Vol. 4. pp. 19-20. The article commences with: "Of all the snow summits of the Pacific Coast, Mt. Shasta occurs to the writer and to others whom he has consulted, as the most interesting." Many details of the summit region are given including the existence there of a record box: "The record box of Shasta is now crammed full of books and papers of unusual character. There are cards advertising stage lines....Most interesting of all, however, is the Bible, a large volume of rather unique design, placed on the summit in August of 1882 by a minister of Red Bluff, Cal., and dedicated, according to the fly-leaf inscription, 'to the use of those who climb this mountain.' There are hundreds of names written indiscriminately through this book, possibly thousands. The signatures have been scrawled through nearly every page of the book from Genesis to Revelations, in most instances directly across the printed matter. Some of the climbers, for whom the effort must have been great, painstakingly searched out and underlined Scripture passages that would appropriately describe their feelings. A veritable circle of names surrounds the passage describing the journey of Moses to the top of Sinai to receive the Commandments" (p. 22). The author also explains that: "Many other interesting records and much intimate history of Shasta mountaineering existed with the old Sisson tavern, but most of this was destroyed in a fire several years ago" (p. 21).
      Note that C. L. Stewart, in his 1929 Master's thesis bibliography, says that this article is of great importance in that it furnished clues which led to the discovery of the original Shasta register (see Stewart 1929, p. 152). 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS586].

[MS1134].          Melham, Tom 1946.  John Muir's Wild America.  Washington, D. C.: National Geographic Society, 1976. Contains an account of a summit climb in emulation of John Muir (pp. 108-11): "Eager to find out what attracted Muir to this mountain, I set off for Shasta's summit in the company of guide Dick Chitwood, his son Mark, and photographer David Falconer." After passing a peaceful meditating lotus-postured 'guru,' the  adventurers soon found many dangers: "Dick suddenly shouted 'Rock! Rock! ROCK!' I looked up quickly to see a bounding boulder caroming downhill straight at us. We dodged aside -- and watched it smash the spot where Dick had stood only seconds before. He was shaken." And: "...I was determined to make it this way -- until the ledge of snow beneath me exploded into a blizzard as both my feet broke through. Suddenly I was parallel to the Chutes steep wall, sliding downhill like a runaway ski " (p. 109).
      Contains several quotations from John Muir's adventures on Mt. Shasta.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1134].

[MS590].          Metcalf, Gertrude. The Mazamas on Shasta. In: Mazama: A Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest. Dec., 1905. Vol. 2. No. 4. pp. 248-255. The author was the wife of Charles Henry Sholes.     An account of the 1904 Mazama outing to climb Mt. Shasta (see also Bronough 1915). More than twenty members of the Mazama mountaineering club climb Mt. Shasta. Their preparations for a guide were spoiled: "A few days before the time appointed for the start a disastrous fire nearly destroyed the little town of Sisson, at the base of Shasta, burned out the very man on whom the Mazamas were counting for aid, annulling contracts and rendering all their carefully laid plans void" (p. 248). The Mazamas mapped out their own route and made a serious and successful summit climb. Contains details of the final summit route taken after several false starts. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS590].

[MS494].          Moore, Jack. Four Day Ski Trip Around Mount Shasta. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: May 1, 1980. p. 4. Detailed account of a four-day ski around Mt. Shasta at timberline. Of Mud Creek canyon the author writes: "When we reached the bottom some 20 minutes later we got back into our skis and carefully made our way over a snowbridge that spanned the cold rushing stream 15 feet below. Crossing Mud Creek here at 6400 feet marked the lowest point we would drop to during our four-day, 33 mile tour. Now that we had made our way safely down into the canyon, there remained the unpleasant prospect of an arduous climb back out. We applied a thick layer of climbing wax to the ski bases and began a seemingly endless series of repetitive traverses up the steep, unpacked slopes."     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS494].

[MS1276].          [Mount Shasta Herald].  Spend Two Nights on Mount Shasta. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Sisson [Mount Shasta City], Calif.: Sept. 6, 1923.  Interesting account explaining who built a longlasting rock shelter on Mount Shasta. Says in part that "Forty years ago Fairchilds, who who at that time was a member of a U.S.Geological Survey party, made the trip to the summit with a party who at that time built a rock shelter which is standing today, and which also sheltered his party forty years after he built it. Many hikers during the past forty years have wondered who built that shelter...."  Article also mention that Norman Clyde was with Fairchilds on this trip. Note also that Stewart states: 'The account of the return visit of Mr. Benjamin L. Fairchild, who was one of Gilbert Thompson's party of 1883.'     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1276].

[MS490].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. Men Make Summit of Mount Shasta January 2. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Jan. 25, 1925. Brief notice of a winter climb by a party composed of  "Dr. Hans Lanter, Dr. Eloesser, Mr. Street, and Mr. O'Brien of Oakland." States that: "The day was ideal and the snow was frozen over."     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS490].

[MS2138].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. No: Sacramento Gazers Cannot See Lassen or Shasta. In: Mount Shasta Herald. April 4, 1935. p. 5. Presents theories explaining why one cannot seee Shasta from Sacramento, not even from the top of the State Capitol Building.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS2138].

[MS773].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. Old Flag Found Near Top of Mt. Shasta. The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. 1949. Vol. 1. No. 4. p. 52. 'from Mount Shasta Herald'     "A flag, bearing the date 'July 13, 1900,' was found ...near the upper end of the Hotlum Glacier on Mount Shasta on July 27, 1949." Five names, including the name of mountain guide Thomas Watson, were written on this hand-painted flag.  12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS773].

[MS1210].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. Oakland Woman Dies in Fall from Cliff. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: July 8, 1954. Obituary of Mrs. Wheeler. Article states in part that: "In 1924 Lake Helen on Mt. Shasta was named for Mrs. Wheeler. She was climbing the mountain with Ed Stuhl, silviculturalist for Hearst and now living in Mount Shasta, when she saw it and liked it. Stuhl named it for her."
      Mrs. Helen Winter Wheeler died in a fall from an 80 foot cliff into Squaw Creek in Shasta county while on a fishing trip.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1210].

[MS932].          Olberman, Joseph Macatee 1862. Rounding Shasta at Snow Line in Summer Time. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Nov. 4, 1928. p. 4. Gives details of a four day trip around the mountain at elevations above and below timberline accomplished by J. M. Olberman (caretaker of the Shasta Alpine Lodge) and Mr. Steele of the Willows Journal newspaper. Records many details of the obstacles encountered: "We were now directly under the Hotlum glacier, and journeying over good ground for a mile or more we came to Brewer Creek, the halting place of former expeditions. Here a wonderful faculty of Mr. Steele's viz., a good guesser, landed us easily on the other side. His decision was speedily taken to go down just below the forks, where we were soon over. The difficulty in crossing these creeks is that they have scoured out deep canyons through volcanic ash and below this through a rocky formation, leaving perpendicular walls of rock at the bottom."
      Note that J. M. Olberman, in addition to being one of Mount Shasta's best known mountaineers, was a published translator, having published a translation of Henrik Ibsen's Brand, Portland, Or.: A.F. Ellis, 1912.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS932].

[MS496].          Olberman, Joseph Macatee 1862. The Rewards of Mountain Climbing. In : Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Mar. 14, 1929. p. 4. The author was the first caretaker of the Sierra Club Hut on Mt. Shasta. His article contains such passages as "Mountain climbing is of the greatest antiquity;" "There they can contemplate on the mighty power that raised the lofty eminence and gaze on the awful chasms rent open, as it were, by earthquake's shocks: whose only music is the echoing thunder, the scream of the eagle and roar of the of the waterfall.;" and "However great and glorious the scenes from the heights may be, the spirit that pervades mountain climbing is still greater. Everyone takes a pleasure in lending a helping hand to others, even though they be strangers. Human nature as it exists below, seems reversed, the pride and jealousy of the lower world being non-existent. Mr. and Mrs. Stuckup never climb mountains; they are too self-centered to consider anything important but themselves."     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS496].

[MS283].          Parker, Peter T. The 'Heart' of Mt. Shasta. In: American Forests. Oct., 1977. pp. 32-34. A literary account of a summit climb. The "heart" is both a region below Red Banks, and a metaphor for spirit. The author says: "I wanted to savour the experience, responding to the restorative challenge of a mountain's power. The prolonged burden of my responsibilities as a business manager had given me a strong need to identify with something greater than the world of men." The author begins the article saying: "The little bald Englishman we had met our first night at Horse Camp told us with no embarrassment, 'I am here to experience the Spirit of Mount Shasta' " and concludes his writing by saying "I had been unaware of the  'spirit of Mount Shasta.' But afterwards, reflecting upon the unified experience, I realized that the spirit of the mountain was its interaction with me, its strength supplementing my own at the crucial moment. My brief encounter with its existence had made a profound impression." Contains a photograph of Mount Shasta by noted photographer David Muench. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS283].

[MS600].          [Portland (Morning) Oregonian]. Shasta Solid Snow Front as Seen from Mt. Hood: C. H. Sholes Describes View and Replies to Carl P. Richards Who Doubts Possibility of Seeing From Peak to Peak. In: Portland (Morning) Oregonian. Portland, Ore.: Jan. 24, 1928. p. 12. A report on the serious but amiable argument between two mountaineers: "Geometry, Einstein, even Plato and Timaeus are drawn into the controversy which is being waged by two mountaineers as to whether, atmospheric conditions favorable, Mount Shasta can be seen from the summit of Mount Hood." Article is about ten paragraphs long and contains many geometrical propositions by both parties, and contains many literary allusions as each party attempts to challenge the other.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS600].

[MS2062].          Powers, Alfred.  Marooned in Crater Lake: Stories of the Skyline Trail, the Umpqua Trail, and the Old Oregon Trail.  Portland, OR: Metropolitan Press, 1930. 177 p.; ill.; 21 cm.; Head-pieces.; Illustrated lining-papers.   Marooned in Crater Lake -- The hickory bank -- The dinner call -- The vanished riders -- The Blue Bucket mine -- The fourth of the far fifteen -- The earths's curvature / by J.W. Booth.     'The fourth of the far fifteen' (p. 123-164) tells a story of two Boy Scout patrols who climb Mount Hood and Mount Shasta on the fourth of July. At 10 p.m., each patrol lights a fire on the summit of the two peaks to see if they can see each other's light over a distance of 250 miles. 'The earth's curvature' (p. 165-177) explains the principles of geography that make it impossible to see one peak from the other. 'Oregonians who made this book: Stories, Alfred Powers; Headpieces, Elizabeth Patton; Cover Design, Frank G. Hutchinson; Text set in 14-pt. Caslon Old Face (Linotype), and printed by The Metropolitan Press; Paper, Monastery Book, by Blake, Moffitt & Towne; Binding by Cutler'--Colophon. Includes publisher's list of 'Books of the Oregon Trail'.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS2062].

[MS712].          Powers, Alfred.  Redwood Country.  New York: Duell, Slone and Pearce, 1949. Powers climbed Mt. Shasta. He says "With our tent fronting the snow peak, we were able to give it a lot of meditative looking one day before we climbed it, and one day afterward. It was a good aesthetics experiment-the change wrought in our appreciation. A professor ought to assign it to a graduate student sometime" (p. 160). Powers also discusses the Mt. Shasta climbing experiences of Joaquin Miller, Clarence King, and John Muir.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS712].

[MS331].          Reid, Robert Leonard.  Mountains of the Great Blue Dream.  San Francisco, Calif.: North Point Press, 1991. pp. 10-11.   Contains a poignant tale of death on Mount Shasta. The author states that: " I think of a climber I knew, a woman named Dina Lombard, who was drawn to the unspeakable beauty of a 14,000-foot mountain in northern California called Shasta, a mountain known to have supernatural powers. In winter, when it hovers white and radiant over the landscape, uncanny in its vastness and its tranquillity, Shasta is a transcendentally beautiful mountain-and a brutal and unforgiving one. Not far from the summit, late one February afternoon, Dina and a companion were engulfed by a storm of unimaginable ferocity. Taking pathetic shelter among a few scattered boulders, the two anchored themselves firmly to the steep slope and prepared to wait out the storm. During the night their food blew away and their feet froze. In the morning, after three failed attempts, they managed to descend a short distance through the still raging storm. On the edge of a crevasse they fashioned a small snow cave. Dina crawled in and her companion closed the entrance with her pack, then set out in the hope of securing food and a stove at a lower camp. The following day, during a lull in the storm, he reascended to the shelter. Where the cave had been, now only one thing remained: the pack and the snow had been blown away, and Dina lay dead on the lip of the crevasse" (p. 10).
      Tales of death are not common in the literature of Mt. Shasta, though certainly many climbers have perished on the mountain. The author of this story makes the most of this reality of a climber's life, and on his own climb of Shasta, he "began to weep. My tears were born of ecstasy and heartbreak alike-tears for the beauty of the world, tears for the gentleness of death" (p. 11).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS331].

[MS1247].          Richards, Carl Price. Some Mountain Problems: Can Shasta Be Seen from Hood? In: Mazama. 1927. Vol. 9. No. 12. pp. 51-53. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #145. 'Bound in Vol. 7'     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1247].

[MS1248].          Richards, Carl Price. Mt. Shasta Visible from Mt. Hood? Again, No. In: Mazama. 1928. Vol. 10. No. 12. pp. 82-91. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #153. 'Bound in Vol. 7'? same comment as Stewart #145.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  [MS1248].

[MS87].          Rusk, Claude Ewing 1871-1931.  Tales of a Western Mountaineer.  Boston, Mass.  Houghton Mifflin Company, 1924. Contains a chapter entitled "Under the Shastan Moon"  (pp. 289-309). The author, an experienced mountaineer, describes with frequent and detailed reference to the curse of middle-age his first unsuccessful attempt (1922) and his successful second attempt (1923) to climb Mount Shasta. The Horse Camp Sierra Club lodge was built during the season between his two climbs. The caretaker of the high altitude lodge, Mr. J. M. Olberman, is often mentioned. The author encounters many climbers, including whole families, all of whom are on their way to the summit.  Photographs: "Mount Shasta in his Summer Robes as Seen through Smoky Atmosphere" (facing p. 286); "Great Ridge Leading toward the Summit of Shasta, from the Top of the Red Barrier" (facing p. 293); "A Lone Alpinette near the Summit of Shasta" (facing p. 293).     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS87].

[MS1263].          [Sacramento Bee]. Thrilling Finish Features Mt. Shasta Marathon. In: Sacramento Bee. Sacramento, Calif.: July 6, 1925. p. 8. An account of David Lawyer setting a new record of climbing Mount Shasta and his good sportsmanship in waking the leader but ill and sleeping Barney McCoy on the way up.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1263].

[MS609].          [San Francisco Chronicle]. California Bronco Breaks the Equine Record for Mountain Climbing. In: San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.  Dec. 6, 1903. Source: Stuhl I; Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #254.    [Watson and Jump-Up]     40. Find List/12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS609].

[MS1271].          [San Francisco Chronicle]. S. F. Girl, 8, Wins Juvenile Mountain Climbing Record by Ascent of Mount Shasta. In: San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: Aug. 15, 1923. "Best Fun Ever, Says Geraldine Mazza at Summit of Peak." Short article. Includes photograph of the young climber.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1271].

[MS769].          Schuler, John W. Atop Mount Shasta. In: Frontier Times. June-July, 1971. p. 35. A nearly identical article by John W. Schular entitled 'Ascent of Mount Shasta with a Horse' was published in The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. 1984. Vol. 5. No. 7. pp. 114-116.     On Sept. 10, 1936, the author and several friends led a horse to the summit of Mt. Shasta. The horse, named Bronco Ben Barr, was taken to the summit as one way of proving that a 1903 photograph of a horse on the summit of the mountain was not a faked event. Riply's "Believe It or Not" had published the 1903 photograph in early 1936, and "hundreds of phone calls and letters" came to Riply denouncing the photograph as a fake. Riply himself called Schuler's father, to verify the photograph. Schuler's father knew all of the 1903 climbers, one of whom was the well-known mountain guide Tom Watson. The author states that "Finally my father told me that he felt the only way to satisfy all parties concerned would be to take a horse to the summit ourselves, or at least make a strong attempt." The obliging horse had no trouble in making the summit from the Clear Creek route on the east side of the mountain. In tribute to the horse, Schuler does state that: "The last lap was the most difficult part of the entire trip. The slope was steep and just before reaching the actual pinnacle is a sheer cliff of about six to seven feet. We at first thought it to be impossible for the horse. However, we held a conference and decided to build a large mound between Bronco Ben and the cliff, and try to force him to jump. When our mound was completed Bronco Ben responded with intelligence and alacrity and arrived on the actual summit."
      A photograph of Bronco Ben Barr at the summit of Mount Shasta accompanies the article. Rev. Henry R. Dunsmuir took the photograph. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS769].

[MS1235].          Sholes, Charles Henry 1853.  Diary of Mazama Shasta Outing, 1904.  1904. Location of manuscript not known.     Charles L. Stewart's 1929 bibliography states, p. 138: "This journal, jotted down in shorthand by Mr. Sholes during the 1904 outing of the Mazamas on Mount Shasta, is the fullest account of their visit to the mountain. Mr. Sholes very kindly allowed me to make a copy of it."     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1235].

[MS2139].          [Sisson Headlight]. [New Trail to Horse Camp-1912; follows the old Shasta trail]. In: Sisson Headlight. 1912  [no month/day?]. Col. 5. p. 1. "Frank Helfrich, the local forest ranger is in charge of a small crew...three men from the forest service on the job and the Sisson Promotion Association has employed the services of Con Purdin to assist the work. They will cut out a good wide trail all the way up, following the old Shasta trail..."     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS2139].

[MS1272].          [Sisson Headlight]. Death Mars Pleasure of Mountain's Climb. In: Sisson Headlight. Sisson [Mount Shasta City], Calif.: Aug. 14, 1916. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  MS1272].

[MS1273].          [Sisson Headlight]. Large Party Hiking to Rest House This Morning. In: Sisson Headlight. Sisson [Mount Shasta City], Calif.: June 28, 1923. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #282    Stewart states: 'The visit of the Knights of Columbus party.'     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  MS1273].

[MS1274].          [Sisson Headlight]. Nine Year Old Girl Ascends Mt. Shasta. In: Sisson Headlight. Sisson [Mount Shasta City], Calif.: July 26, 1923. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #283    12. Mountaineering: 20th Century/40. Find List.  MS1274].

[MS1275].          [Sisson Headlight]. Man Lost on Shasta Returns Tuesday; Spends Night on Mountain. In: Sisson Headlight. Sisson [Mount Shasta City], Calif.: Aug. 6, 1923. Stewart states: 'The story of R. Peet's perilous descent of the Whitney Glacier by night.'     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1275].

[MS617].          Steele, A. T. Circling Shasta's Waist. In: Willows Journal. Willows, Calif.: Sept. 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 1928. Reprinted in a condensed version in Sierra Club Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 1, Feb.1929, pp. 91-96.    Eight-part series recounting the author's trip with J. M. Olberman, caretaker of the Sierra Club lodge. Their route followed above and below timberline in a counter-clockwise direction. They encountered only moderate difficulties, as for example: 'It was about 10 o'clock when we reached Brewer creek canyon. Our first view of the great trough was not cheering. The canyon resembled, in many respects, the gorge of Mud creek. Its walls sloped off at about the same angle. They were as smooth as they were barren. But up and down we could see no place at which a descent appeared possible. We walked down along the bank of the canyon for perhaps half a mile, then again searched the slopes in both directions. This time we saw what appeared to be a possible course, about a quarter of a mile below usÑdown a gravel ridge' (Sept .12). 
      Series begins: 'It was Mac's idea. 'Lets make a trip around the mountain at the timberline,' he suggested one evening last July, as we sat in front of the fire place at the Sierra Club's Mount Shasta lodge. 'I don't believe it's been done before,' he added.'
      Series ends: 'We had been walking for slightly more than 2 1/2 days. We had covered between 30 and 35 miles. Mac summed up the sentiments of both of us when he exclaimed, as he threw down his pack in front of the stone lodge: 'I wouldn't have missed it. But I don't want to do it again.''     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS617].

[MS2190].          Stuhl, Edward.  A Passion for Mountains: The Journals of Edward Stuhl, 1917 -1929.  Klamath Falls, OR: Shaw Historical Library, 1998. Also published as The Journal of the Shaw Historical Library, Vol. 12, 1998. Copyright 1998 by Meriam Library Special Collections, California State University, Chico.  Introduction by Betty Lou Byrne Shirley.  Table of Contents: First Visit to Mount Shasta. Second Ascent of Mount Shasta. Crater Lake. Medicine Lake Volcanoes. Mount Shasta - South and West Slopes. Mount McLoughlin. Mount Thielsen.     A core work in the legacy of climbing on Mount Shasta. Provides among many things a context for the naming in 1925 of 'Lake Helen'. He writes: "But now Mrs. Helen Wheeler Jr. was not satisfied with my story as first told. She wanted to know more of the details and I understood what she had in the back of her mind. I had experience with fair- ones in the mountains and long ago came to the conclusion 'never again'. - However, here is a women of a different type, not only a nature lover, but a woman of physical perfection, culture, and intelligence. I have met no other woman who rides horses through the woods, and over mountains with such enjoyment, endurance, and uncomplaining resignation in regard to hardship...I am sure she will make a good climber.(p.15)" "On the way farther down I noticed now for the first time a small pool of water filling past of the hallow at the 11,000 foot terrace in the vicinity of Battlement Rock. When we reached the pool we estimated it to be six to eight feet deep and there still was a layer of ice on its bottom and a mass of white snow-ice overhung it cavern-like on the south side. Helen wanted to know whether that pool had a name; it had none and solemnly I baptized it 'Lake Helen' "(p. 19)     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS2190].

[MS1122].          Stuhl, Edward 1887-1984.  Climbing Mt. Shasta at Seventy. In: Pacific Sportsman. Aug., 1933. 'By Edward Stuhl of San Francisco.'     Biography of Mack Olberman, custodian of the Shasta alpine lodge of the Sierra Club. The author and "Mack" climb to the summit from the lodge in five hours and twelve minutes. 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS1122].

[MS344].          Stuhl, Edward 1887-1984.   Mount Shasta Journal: 1917-1923.  Chico, Calif.: Association for Northern California Records and Research, 1989. Edward Stuhl became one of Mt. Shasta's legendary figures because of his decades of mountaineering and conservation efforts. Living near Mount Shasta for much of his adult life he took his love for art and beauty into the mountains, painting nearly all of the wildflowers of Mount Shasta.  In 1981 a book of color reproductions was published, titled Wildflowers of Mount Shasta.
     In 1917, he wrote about Mt. Shasta that: "I had not seen a real mountain for many years, and such a mountain with eternal snow and probably glacier ice on; and of such height and dimensions, majesty and beauty, making faint any attempt to describe it. Almost awed and spellbound I settled on a rock by the wayside and let the knapsack slip from shoulder to the ground. I rested and looked and wondered. I felt like when first I saw the sea from the height of the Karst plateau, the Adriatic with the setting sun sinking into her golden flood; or when, after a school year's longing and days of walking over the Bavarian plain, I greeted the Stubaier Alps from Tyrol. Those are impressions to settle deep. And here I set in California at the foot and in the spell of Shasta; old dreams and new longings arose, the love for the mountains of a stray mountaineer; the restless impulse for adventure and conquest, and conquer I will this mountain" (p. 12).
      Chapter titles are "1: First Visit to Mount Shasta- June-July, 1917", and "2: My First Assault on Mount Shasta. August, 1923". Contains a bit of history about "The Bend" on the McCloud River which according to Stuhl was bought by Mr. Wheeler Sr. from J. H. Sisson. Edward Stuhl later worked for the Wheelers. Eventually the ranch was 3,600 acres and extended for 5 miles along the river (p. 34).
      The highlight of this journal are Stuhl's descriptions of his summit attempt in 1923. He did not quite reach the summit but nonetheless could still observe the beauty around him. He says: "The scenery up here was very impressive, wild, primeval beautiful. - A wilderness of red, brown, and black rocks of most weird forms, and snow and ice of dazzling whiteness and transparent emerald in its shade, and above it all the cupola of a cloudless sky of deepest indigo.-The world and all alive far below; up here not a sign, no signs of any living beings. Only wind howls and roars as it sweeps around tall cliffs and through narrow gaps" (p. 54).
      The Stuhl journal was published from documents in the Edward Stuhl Collection housed in the Special Collections Department of the Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS344].

[MS2134].          [unspecified newspaper].  Long Distance Seeing [Mt. Hood to Mt. Shasta]. In: unspecified newspaper. no date. Lengthy article comparing distances between Cascade peaks and explaining theories of long distance viewing.  One Oregon climber claimed that Mt. Shasta, 276 miles distant, could be seen. Arguments presented concerning this possibility.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS2134].

[MS1261].          Warner, Charles E. Blizzards Beat Shasta Climbers. In: Oakland Tribune. Oakland, CA: Jan. 4, 1923. p. 1. This story is followed by a six-part series, Jan. 7-12, 1923 on the survival of Warner's climbing party.    This article and the series of articles after it comprise a dramatic telling of what was a mid-winter attempt to be the first such summiting of Mount Shasta. The newspaper tried to make much of the story, as for example, the lead-in for Jan. &, 1923: "Mountain Climbers with no food face death in Shasta Snow/Thrilling Story of Battle with Artic Cold on Big Peak After Guides Departed From Alpine Cabin/Five Days of Hard Struggle/For five days, beginning Friday December 29, Charles E. Warner, of the Oakland Tribune, and Leonard Thatcher, a University of California senior, struggled through the snow and ice and driving winter storms on the slopes of Mount Shasta in an effort to reach the summit. No one had ever succeeded in reaching the summit of this mountain in the depth of winter. Warner and Thatcher succeeded in climbing to within 2000 feet of their goal before they were finally driven back by the difficulties of the journey and the fury of the elements. The story of their five-day battle up the mountainside, during which they became separated from their food supplies, had to feel their way ina raging blizzard, and endured many hardships and dangers, makes one of the most thrilling narratives of adventure ever published....." Contains many photographs and maps of the route, bivouc sites, etc. This is a long account with very interesting photographs of the climbers and their gear.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  MS1261].

[MS2093].          Mt. Shasta, California. 5 climbers caught, 2 partly buried, 3 buried, 1 killed. In: Williams, Knox and Armstrong, Betsy.  The Snowy Torrents: Avalanche Accidents in the United States 1972-79.  Jackson: Teton Bookshop Publishing Company, 1979. pp. 35-37.   Mt. Shasta, California. 5 climbers caught, 2 partly buried, 3 buried, 1 killed. A three page summary of the accident complete with personal accounts of the avalanche, with a report on the rescue and comments on all aspects. A highly readible account of a natural avalanche in Mt. Shasta’s Avalanche Gulch. “There had been nothing during the day to indicate any instability in the snowpack except, as Hamson recounted later, a funny sort of ‘booming’ or soft thunder’ sound in the snow as they walked on it.” Ironically, that very noise was a clear indication of unstable snow underfoot. Although not the cause of the avalanche, the party should have known better than to be climbing in such conditions. The dead climber’s body did not surface until the next year.     12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS2093].

[MS628].          Wilson, Neil C. Wigwam of Fires. In: The Olympian. May, 1927. Vol. 15. pp. 9 and 28. Begins: "Steam-room athletes would appreciate certain features of Mt. Shasta. Hot springs and steam jets have been established up there that are kept open and running day and night." Article consists of a general geological and historical review of Mt. Shasta, followed by a description of the route to the summit.  The author experienced a partial eclipse of the sun while on the summit: "While enjoying his own solitary company lying on the tip-top and peering over the eastern edge--the while doing what he could to keep the expression from being blown off his face--the good California sun flickered and went out. Things got eerie and orange; it was an eclipse. It was only a partial eclipse at that latitude; but what there was of the show, your author had all to himself from the finest box seat imaginable." 12. Mountaineering: 20th Century.  [MS628].


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