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Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 26

Environmental Issues

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This section contains environmental impact statements, wilderness proposals, The Wilderness Act, national and state park proposals, government hearing testimony, editorials, newspaper and magazine articles, and other materials, all of which help document the many controversies over development of Mt. Shasta. Environmental controversies pertaining to Mt. Shasta have existed for over a hundred years. Joaquin Miller, in his 1873 Life Amongst the Modocs: Unwritten History, proposed making Mt. Shasta the center of an Indian Republic. In January 1888, the Yreka Journal reported a national park plan was being proposed by the railroad, a plan that included Mt. Shasta, Black Butte, Castle Crags, and much of the Sacramento River Canyon. John Muir and John P. Irish both published articles in the 1888 Picturesque California outlining the need for preserving the Shasta region. Most of the early controversies addressed the entire region. As time progressed the environmental arguments became more specific as to land and issues. In modern times Native Americans have added their voices to various controversies. The entries in this section are those that were deemed integral to the history of concern over development of Mt. Shasta. See Section 1. Comprehensive Histories, especially Berenice Lamson's environmental issues-oriented Mt. Shasta, A Regional History for a data-filled report about development on the mountain, and Michael Zanger's 1992 Mt. Shasta, History, Legends, and Lore, for a history of environmental issues. Time did not allow for the location of many unpublished studies about Mt. Shasta cited in Economic Research Associates' (San Francisco) excellent Social and Economic Environment and Baseline Assumptions for Mt. Shasta Ski Area Socio-economic Impact Study...October, 1987; the studies listed included several Mt. Shasta archaeological reconnaissance papers, ski area market reports, land classification orders, etc.

The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS2022].          Allen-Diaz, Barbara.  Mt. Shasta Meadow Restoration Plan, Mt. Shasta Ranger District, Shasta-Trinity National Forests.  Berkeley, CA: Dept. Forestry and Resource Management, University of California, 1992. 59, [4], [24], [27] leaves : maps ; 28 cm.   Prepared by Barbara Allen-Diaz, Catherine Phillips, Maria Fernandez-Gimenez. Contents:           Purpose and need -- Background history -- Current management issues: meadow restoration and protection, visitor management, proposed ski area -- The affected environment: the physical environment, the biological environment, the human environment -- Recommendations: trails, revegetation, facilities and campgrounds, signs, volunteer/staffing, education/interpretation, campsite and structure elimination, Native American concerns/Panther Spring, visitor use observations and questionnaire -- Monitoring: revegetation, human use, campsite and structure elimination -- Bibliography -- Maps -- Appendices.     Abstract:    "The Mount Shasta meadows restoration project was initiated in June 1991 to reduce and eventually prevent further damage to meadow vegetation in Panther and Squaw Meadows, and to develop management strategies for meadow restoration and visitor education." (p. 5)      26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2022].

[MS2142].          Apperson, Or. Everitt Memorial: a Highway with a Checkered History. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mar. 19/Mar. 26, 1997. Sec. B/Sec. B. p.1/p.1. 2 part article.    Long article on the history of the road, from around 1886 to 1997, and politics behind it. The author's father had been editor of the forerunner of the Mt. Shasta Herald and was one of the first, in 1915, to promote in print the idea of the road. Several opposing forces were for and against the road, especially in the 1920's and 1930's. Regional forester S.B. Show overrode the objections of Supervisor Tom Jones and ordered the road built. Later, State Senator Collier used appropriations bills to wrest out some monies for the road. (Incidentally, the author states that Forest supervisor Tom Jones was under the impression that the public had no business going into the National Forests, and that this is the reason why the trail head to Black Butte is in such an inaccessible location.) Included origin of the name Bunny Flat as being the result of a portable rope tow's popularity at that site. People and places mentioned are:  J. M. Schuler., H. D. Brown, John Mackey, C.C.C., Panther Meadow, John S. Everitt, Sisson Trail, Sand Flat, Horse Camp, Randolf Collier, Bunny Flat, Ski Bowl Corporation, Carl McConnell, Green Butte, Carl Martin.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2142].

[MS2155].          Barr, Meadow Holly. A Story. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1999 Senior honors thesis for Bachelor of Arts in Interdisciplinary Field Studies: Political Ecology. 68. pp.  Chapter titles: Preface;Thesis Statement and Overview;Introduction- a movement, a thought, and the beginning of a story; Chapter One-the story of perceived separation. Chapter Two- the story of connection; Chapter Three-biophilia, environmental ethics and environmental education; Chapter Four-sacred space and spiritual ecology; Chapter Five-language, storytelling and nature writing; Conclusion-a wild ethic placing our words back into the landscape and bringing the sacred home; Bibliography.      Author was raised in the shadow of Mt. Shasta. Mt. Shasta is one of several places that hold experiences for the author. She uses the mountain and other places to illustrate the need to have a sense of place that is not only at once local and global, but is at the same time a sense of place interconnected with one's own true deep feelings. According to the author, connection to deep feeling is both easy and difficult; and the lack of self-connections results in the lack of any kind of ecologically viable understanding of earth's tenuable situation. The difficult philosophical problems presented in the chapers are reflected upon with personal anecdotes. Personal questions, poems, stories, prose and images are used to communicate the need to change stagnant ways of being. The suggestion is given that radical language (metaphorical story-telling and poetic language; and paradoxically, pure silence, too) can help reunite individuals (and society, too) with their own experience of the earth. Contains a substantial bibliography of many leading thinkers concerned with the nature of language as it concerns the various ecologies of place. The mountain is mentioned on pages 37, 43, 44, 45. A drawing of Mt. Shasta by the author appears on the cover.The author concludes by writing: 'Complexity is really quite simple you see. All matter has the same basic structure. This essence can be expressed in infinite ways, indefinitely. This is only one way of wading through, dangling and spinning on, falling, hiking over, peering down and sliding across the simple complexity of my world. This is my way of perceiving Meadow in written words. Circular, yet not limited to a perfect circle. The beginning rests at an end, continuous... There is no end to this story. Breathe and experience. Think of a story, and Speak Words....'     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2155].

[MS1179].          Buckskin, Floyd and Thom, Charles.  Mt. Shasta--Ski Resort Development.  Nov. 22, 1991. 'Presented to the State of California Native American Heritage Commission.' Unpublished typescript.     Consists of a review of the legal history of the Mount Shasta Ski Area and presenting, on behalf of the authors and other Native Americans, their conclusion that "we seek the assistance of the Commission in preserving Mt. Shasta's spiritual and cultural importance" (p. 12).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1179].

[MS1184].          Castle, Ken. The Eerie Ire of Shasta: Developers Have Tried to Tame This Mystical 'Medicine Mountain' for nearly three decades. But Shasta refuses to Yield. In: Ski. Oct., 1986. Vol. 51. No. 2. pp. 134-? Focuses on the uncertain weather conditions, avalanches, and the subjective perception of an "eerie overwhelming presence" as the main factors in corroborating the myth that Mt. Shasta is hostile to skiing development. 26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1184].

[MS753].          [Congress, 62nd.  [House Resolution 22353: Mount Shasta National Park, notes on] . In: Congressional Record - House of Representatives, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session.  Mar. 26, 1912. p. 3859.   One sentence only. 'By Mr. Raker....Also, a bill (H.R. 22353) to set aside certain lands in the State of California as a public park, to be known as the Mount Shasta National Park in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, in the State of California, and for other purposes; to the Committee on the Public lands.' John E. Raker (d. 1926) was a member of the second House of Representatives from the second California district.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS753].

[MS752].          [Congress, 63rd.  [House Resolution 53: Mount Shasta National Park, notes on] . In: Congressional Record - House of Representatives, 63th Congress, 1st Session.  Apr. 7, 1913. p. 80.   One sentence only. 'Also, a bill (H.R. 53) to set apart certain lands in the State of California as a public park to be known as the Mount Shasta National Park, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, in the State of California, and for other purposes; to the Committee on the Public Lands.'     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS752].

[MS751].          [Congress, 68th.  [House Resolution 12408: Mount Shasta National Park, notes on] . In: Congressional Record - House of Representatives, 68th Congress, 2nd Session.  Feb. 24, 1925. p. 4622.   One sentence only. 'By Mr. Raker: A bill (H.R. 12408) to establish the Mount Shasta National park in the State of California; to the Committee on the Public lands'.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS751].

[MS1076].          [Congress, 98th.  An Act Entitled the 'California Wilderness Act of 1984'.  [Washington, D. C.]: U.S. G.P.O., 1984. Public Law 98-425ŃSept. 28, 1984. (H.R. 1437). 98th Congress. 98 STAT. 1619.     This is the Public Law which added many new wilderness areas to California's National Forests, including: "certain lands in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, California, which comprise approximately thirty-seven thousand acres, as generally depicted on a map entitled 'Mt. Shasta Wilderness--Proposed,' dated July 1984, and which shall be known as the Mount Shasta Wilderness."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1076].

[MS885].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991. More Than 1393 People On Shasta's Summit Since 1932. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Oct. 5, 1939. p. 5. Contains an early statement of Cooke's concern for the preservation of Mt. Shasta. He states that: "After all, we have only begun to climb this beautiful mountain of ours. The first ascent was made only 77 years ago. Let us try to keep the mountain as fascinating for an ascent as she was to those old timers, Pierce, Diehl, Muir and King--from every angle and from every approach."
      This article is also interesting in mention of Panther Meadows as a major staging area for summit climbers. Two groups in particular are singled out as having used the Panther Meadows route, one of Boy Scouts, and the other of senior Forest Service administrators.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS885].

[MS244].          Cooke, William Bridge 1908-1991.  Mount Shasta - Personal Reminiscences and Opinions.  1970? Unpublished manuscript. Twenty typewritten pages.     Autobiographical account by William Bridge Cook, noted botanist and author of the Flora of Mount Shasta (see Cooke 1940 and supplements). Begins with the statement that "It might seem strange that a person from the midwest, specifically Cincinnati, should show an interest in setting aside of Wilderness on Mount Shasta." Cooke explains that in 1936 the president of the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History asked him to go to Mount Shasta to collect a species of plant (Campanula wilkinsiana) which at the time was thought to only grow on Mount Shasta. Thus began lifelong series of visits to Mount Shasta. Cooke knew Mount Shasta in more botanical and scientific detail than anyone else ever has, and his reminiscences have great value to readers interested in the natural history of the mountain. This account of the mountain was written in support of Mt. Shasta wilderness conservation legislation, but it is nonetheless a highly personal story.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS244].

[MS798].          Coyle, Jenny. The National Park That Never Was. In : San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: May 28, 1989. p. 12. In 'This World,' a news magazine of the San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 1989. This was a special issue 24 pages long entitled 'A Mountain 'Lonely as God': Tales of Mount Shasta' and contains eight separate feature articles by seven authors.    Contains a documented record of the many attempts to establish a national or state park at Mt. Shasta. The author states that " wasn't until 1912 that the first serious steps were taken to make Mount Shasta a national park. With the Panama Pacific Exposition scheduled to be held in San Francisco in 1915, the Sisson Promotion Association in the town of what is now Mount Shasta City wanted the mountain to be designated a national park in order to draw tourists to the North State." Several bill were introduced to the U.S. Congress between 1912 and 1925, but it was not until 1984 that any major wilderness area of Mt. Shasta was designated as a preserve.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS798].

[MS593].          Delorme, Mace J. A Gathering of Good Spirits. In: News from Native California: An Inside View of the California Indian World. Spring, 1992. Vol. 6. No. 2. pp. 35-36. 'Special Issue: California Indians and the Environment'     The author describes an outdoor meeting held near Mt. Shasta and led by Wintu shaman Flora Jones. The article begins: "We came together on that warm, sunny day, a gathering of good spirits. I feel myself there again. I am sitting behind our Indian Doctor, Pui-lu-li-met, meaning 'Eastern-Flower-Woman,' her Wintu name. She is also known as Flora Jones, a shaman of the Wintu people. I am facing Mt. Shasta, or Bohem Puyuk, as it is called in the Wintu language, or Akoo-Yet, by my own Pit River people."
      The author develops a narrative of the beauty and meaning of Mt. Shasta for the Indian people. She then discusses the need for the Indian caretakers of the mountain to stop an impending ski area development, or as she says: "...stop this aberration, these other humans' desire to rearrange Bohem Puyuk's natural beauty."
     The cover of this issue displays a woodblock print of Mt. Shasta, by Wintu artist Frank LaPena. 26. Environmental Issues.  [MS593].

[MS1059].          Economic Research Associates (San Francisco, Calif.).  Social and Economic Environment and Baseline Assumption for Mt. Shasta Ski Area Socio-economic Impact Study: Prepared for Mt. Shasta Ski Area: Phase 1 Report.  San Francisco, Calif.: Economic Research Associates, Oct.,1987. Phase One of Economics Research Associates Project 'No. 8600.' Bound with Socio-Economic Impact Analysis for Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Phase 2, ...February, 1988'     Consists of Phase One, or Sections I through IV, of the entire fiscal and social analysis project. Note that phase Two is separately published. Section titles of Phase I are: Introduction; Summary and Conclusions; Social and Economic Environment; Baseline Assumption for Local and Regional Impact Analysis.
      From the introduction: "In the Spring of 1987, Economics Research Associates (ERA) was retained as part of an interdisciplinary team for the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the proposed Mt. Shasta Ski Area. ERA's role in the preparation of this document was defined by the proponent and the U.S. Forest Service, with the objective to provide a separate technical document which could be used as resource material in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Study (EIS), and as reference material for those who wanted greater clarification of the information contained in the EIS. Specifically, ERA's role was to examine the previous research which had defined a relevant market for Mt. Shasta Ski Area, to provide a financial analysis of the social, economic, and fiscal impacts of each of the alternatives which appeared to be financially feasible" (p. I-1).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1059].

[MS1060].          Economic Research Associates (San Francisco, Calif.).  Socio-Economic Impact Analysis for Mt. Shasta Ski Area: Prepared for Mt. Shasta Ski Area: Phase 2 Report.  San Francisco, Calif.: Economic Research Associates, Feb., 1988. Phase Two of Economics Research Associates Project 'No. 8600.' Bound with Phase One entitled: Social and Economic Environment and Baseline Assumption for Mt. Shasta Ski Area Socio-economic Impact Study...February 1988.'     Consists of Phase Two or Sections V through IX of the entire fiscal and social analysis project. Note that Phase One is separately published. Section titles of Phase Two are: Skier Demand and Financial Analysis; Comparable Ski Communities; Economic Impact of the Mount Shasta Ski Area; Fiscal Impact of the Mount Shasta Ski Area; Social Impact of the Mt. Shasta Ski Area.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1060].

[MS2023].          Economics Research Associates.  Phase I report : social and economic environment and baseline assumption for Mt. Shasta Ski Area socio-economic impact study : prepared for Mt. Shasta Ski Area, October 1987 / prepared by Economics Research Associates. Phase II report : socio-economic impact analysis for Mt. Shasta Ski Area : prepared for Mt. Shasta Ski Area, February 1988 / prepared by Economics Research Associates.  San Francisco, CA: Economics Research Associates, 1987, 1988. 1 v. (various pagings) : 28 cm.   Phase I (one) and Phase II (two) reports bound together with a cover letter dated February 5, 1988 and addressed to Mr. Carl Martin, President, Mt. Shasta Ski Area.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2023].

[MS1069].          Erhart, E. E.  Reconnaissance Report of Everitt Memorial Highway between Mount Shasta City and Panther Meadow, Shasta National Forest, Siskiyou County, California.  Federal Works Agency, Public Roads Administration, District No. 2, 1940. Source of Citation: DEIS MSWP 1990, p. VII-1     26. Environmental Issues/40. Find List.  [MS1069].

[MS2212].          Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria, Huntsinger, Lynn, Phillips, Catherine, and Allen-Diaz, Barbara.  Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta. Chavez, Deborah J.  Proceedings of the Social Aspects and Recreation Research: February 19-22, 1992, Ontario, California.  1992. pp. 36-37.   United States Department of Agriculture, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-132.     This two page report summarizes the non-traditional 'New Age' uses of selected places on Mount Shasta, primarily Panther Meadows.The authors report that so-called spiritual users view the Forest Service as hypocritical (because the Forest Service protects the meadows while clear cutting elsewhere). The authors also report that the Forest Service views the 'New Agers" as hypocritical (for they demonstrate a lack of basic ecological awareness in damaging the fragil meadow environment). A communications solution is suggested and a 1991 experiment in "convergence culture" was conducted whereby communication between sides was facilitated by a new age volunteer working on behalf of both sides.      26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2212].

[MS2024].          Gillham, John.  Mt. Shasta Project: a Scenic and Ecological assessment of the Everitt Memorial Highway.  1993. [79], 17, 2, 4 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.   Prepared by C.A.E.D. CAL POLY Landscape Architecture Department LA461 - Senior design project directed by John Gillham with ARC/INFO consultation by Walt Bremer. 'Prepared for U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Shasta-Trinity National Forest.' Bibliographical references: appendix B. Contents:     Introduction -- Landscape character and scenic resource assessment -- Forest ecology -- Perception potential -- Issues and recommendations -- The game.     "The Everitt Memorial Highway and the study area have historically been 'all things to all people' and are reaching, have reached, or have exceeded their carrying capacity. Proposals for development(s), a new connector from Interstate 5, and an information center will significantly affect the study area by an increase in the numbers of users and the numbers and types of activities.' (Issues and Recommendations)     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2024].

[MS1066].          Henn, Winfield.  Archaeological Reconnaissance Report No. 05-14-256,  Mt. Shasta Ski Area Development: Addendum No. 1.  Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Ca., 1986. Source of Citation: DEIS MSWP 1990, p. VII-2.     26. Environmental Issues/40. Find List.  [MS1066].

[MS2091].          Heywood, J. Sharon Forest Supervisor.  Letter June 10, 1998 to Regional Forester: Final Recommendation for Revocation of the Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Inc.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shasta-Trinity National Forests, Redding, CA.  June 10, 1998. 7pp. (with  additional 3 page cover letter).     7 page letter from the Forest Supervisor to the Regional Forester. Contains details of the application of Clause 54 (Archaeological-Paleontological Discoveries) and Clause 16 (Public Interest) as grounds for revoking the Special Use Permits issued to the Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Inc. This document was used and cited by the Regional Forester to revoke the use permits for a large and controversial planned ski area on Mt. Shasta (see Sprague, G. Lynn -Regional Forester, U.S.F.S.: Letter to Carl Martin July 21, 1998: Decision To Revoke Special Use Permits for Mount Shasta Ski Area). Two areas of concern are addressed in this document: I. Revocation pursuant to Clause 54 (Historic Sites). II. Revocation pursuant to Clause 16, Public Interest. This document outlines the procedures used to assess the historical and cultural significance of the Mount Shasta Cosmological District as well as the Panther meadows area. Both these areas were found to be eligible for the National Register, and that the proposed Ski Area would affect the significance of these areas. The effects incude "adverse air quality changes, diminishing the setting of Panther Meadows; adverse visual effects due to lift line construction, impacting the setting and use of both the Cosmological District and Panther Meadows, adverse noise effects to both settings, physical alteration of the District, and generally, adverse effects to the overall setting of both properties, where setting is one of the characteristics or values that makes them eligible." As for the public interest, the author states that "I recommend revocation for reasons in the public interest because of the adverse effect to historic properties, because there is intense public controversy and an absence of consensus about the project, as well as significant obstacles to implementation, and because an existing ski area on private land that appears to be providing skiing opportunities to meet current skier demand. The author lists a full page of obstacles to implementation, including avalanche reviews, 106 process review, financial reviews, all new circumstances, supplements to the EIR, etc.'     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2091].

[MS2133].          Holt, Tim. Mt. Shasta: Revered and Ravaged Mountain. In: Jefferson Monthly. Feb. 1999. pp. 8-11. A history of the long standing Mt. Shasta Ski Area controversy, written after the decision to revoke the project's permits. 26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2133].

[MS221].          Irish, John Powell 1843-1923.  The Sacramento Valley. In: Muir, John 1838-1914.  Picturesque California and the Region West of the Rocky Mountains [1888-9].  Philadelphia, Pa.: Running Press, 1976. pp. 363-380.   Story first published in 1888. Constitutes 'Chapter XIX' of Picturesque California.     John P. Irish, a newspaper editor of renown who later became John Muir's political enemy over the Hetch Hetchy dam, wrote this chapter while he was still Muir's friend. In discussing the glories of the upper Sacramento River canyon he writes : "The Sacramento River issues from the base of Mount Shasta in mighty springs, the streams from which brawl under the shade of the piney woods until they are confluent in the ca–on of the Sacramento. Down the river goes roaring between narrow belts walls of rock and still narrower walls of bloom of the wild azalea, ...but its waters here are stainless as a star..." (p. 366). He concludes that: "The beauties of this ca–on deserve protection as much as the more famous charms of the Yellowstone and Yosemite valleys. If its forest-clad slope are left as nature dressed them it will be one of California's pleasant places, therefore commerce, with conquering axe and saw, should be forbidden here....Let us give her handiwork in this place as much respectful care and shelter as we do to that which men wrought in ages long gone by" (pp. 366-367).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS221].

[MS1080].          Johnson, Steven R.  Mt. Shasta National Park: A Draft Proposal.  Nov.,1978. Letterhead of the Mount Shasta Resource Council.     Contains a detailed draft report in three sections: I. Mt. Shasta National Park Proposal-A Concise History. II. Reasons for a Mt. Shasta National Park. III Mt. Shasta National Park-Draft Proposal for the Purpose of Discussion.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1080].

[MS1005].          Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc.  McCloud River: Wild and Scenic River Study. Volume 1, Final Study Report.  Sacramento, Calif.: Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc., June, 1988. 'Submitted to: The Resources Agency of California.'     An extensive study of the McCloud River, which drains approximately 670 square miles of land, including a portion of Mt. Shasta. The paper focuses on the resource values of the river itself, including climate and air quality, geology, soils, minerals, water quality, water quantity, botany, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, scenery, culture, history,  science, ecology, and education. 
      Mt. Shasta is frequently mentioned in relation to its influence on the river. For example, the authors state that: "The turquoise color frequently found in the McCloud River is caused by the discharge of glacial silt into the river from Mud Creek, which drains Mt. Shasta's Konwakiton Glacier. Depending on hydrologic conditions, the glacial silt periodically gives McCloud Reservoir and the river below a beautiful turquoise color. This distinctive water color, typical of streams and rivers found draining glacial valleys in British Columbia and Alaska, is unique in California" (p. 3-26).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1005].

[MS1200].          Labensart, Stephen 1989.  [statement before the Congressional Mt. Shasta Wilderness Hearings, June 30, 1979]. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.  Apr. 12, 1989. p. A-9. A reprint of the composer's 1979 statement, printed in commemoration by friends shortly after the composer death on Mar. 27, 1989.    Consists of part of a statement first presented at a Congressional Wilderness Hearing about Mt. Shasta. The statement was from a professional classical musician and composer who was a local resident in the Mt. Shasta region: "I go up to the mountain to receive inspiration as well as to pray./I go there to be inspired to the harmony, to the harmony that I have forgotten./I go there to seek protection./I go there to cleanse my heart./....By scarring the Earth, we scar our minds./By destroying sacred places, we destroy our art./By having petty transient pleasure at the cost of higher values,/This weakens the human mind./We must learn to know beauty again, and sacredness again./And that is why we need places such as Mount Shasta."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1200].

[MS796].          Lovett, Richard A. Battle for the Slopes: Plans for a Ski Resort set off a Fierce Debate over the Fate of Shasta's Southern Flank. In : San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, Calif.: May 28, 1989. p. 10. In 'This World,' a news magazine of the San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 1989. This was a special issue 24 pages long entitled 'A Mountain 'Lonely as God': Tales of Mount Shasta' and contains eight separate feature articles by seven authors.    Concerns the battle to build a second ski area on Mt. Shasta. Contains interviews with Carl Martin--the principal developer of the proposed ski park, Cliff Rechtschaffen--state Deputy Attorney General whose office has opposed the project, Steve Evans--member of the local Sierra Club, Jerry Duffy--representative of the Roseburg Lumber Company which donated land to the ski area project, and others.
      Regarding the low profit margins deemed acceptable by the ski area proponents, Carl Martin states: "God forbid that I might have an investor who just likes to ski, who doesn't care if he gets rich or not. Thousands of people are going to have a lot of fun. Isn't that worth something?" (p. 22).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS796].

[MS2076].          Martin, Carl and Anderson, Lee.  Mt. Shasta Ski Area Development Plan.  1986. about 50 pp.   This was the main planning document submitted by the Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Inc. to the Forest Service for review and approval. All aspects of the development plan are included" Base lodge, ski runs, lift and mountain capacities, future potential expansion, roads, sewer, water, erosion, three phase plan, etc.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2076].

[MS582].          McAllister, Matthew Hall.  Sierra Club Tells of Plans for Shasta Lodge for this Year. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: 1927? Contains many details of the Sierra Club's Mt. Shasta lodge, for example: "One of the committee who has been spending the winter in Santa Barbara, has ordered for the lodge four unique and artistic pieces of metal work for the four rock corner posts which stand one hundred feet apart at the four corners of the building."
      Similar articles by M. Hall McAllister appear in the Mount Shasta Herald of: Jan. 1926; Feb. 3, 1927; 1927; July ?, 1927; Nov. 24, 1927; Mar. 22, 1928; Nov. 15, 1928; Nov. 29, 1928; Feb. 1; 1929; Apr. 23, 1931; Jan. 11, 1934; Jan. 25, 1934; June 21, 1934; Apr. 12, 1934.      26. Environmental Issues.  [MS582].

[MS501].          McAllister, Matthew Hall.  Mount Shasta State Park Sponsored. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Mar. 22, 1928. Consists of a reprint of a long letter sent by M. Hall McAllister, of the Sierra Club, to W. E. Colby, chairman of the State Park Committee. McAllister requests that Mt. Shasta be made a State Park. Not mentioned in the article is that W. E. Colby, a former professor of mining law at U. C. Berkeley, was also a past president of the Sierra Club.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS501].

[MS2021].          Mennis, Jeremy.  Mt. Shasta Ski Area : the role of Native American cultural sites in United States Forest Service land management.  1996. 36 leaves : 28 cm.   Research paper for coursework at Portland State University. Includes bibliographical references: p. [34-36]. Contents:       Introduction -- History of the MSSA -- Establishing Native American cultural sites -- Native American myth: Pit River, Wintu, Shasta, Modoc, Karuk, analysis of mythic evidence -- Traditional and contemporary religious use -- USFS action and reaction -- Analysis -- Discussion -- Conclusion.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2021].

[MS919].          Merriam, John Campbell 1869-1945. [letter to Sierra Club, Oct. 31, 1922]. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Feb., 3, 1927. p. 1. Letter quoted in an article by M. Hall McAllister entitled "Mt. Shasta Centennial, February 14." University of California paleontologist John C. Merriam [not related to the equally eminent zoologist and ethnographer C. Hart Merriam] is quoted from a letter to the Sierra Club at the time of the opening of the Shasta Alpine Lodge: "Mount Shasta is in my judgement one of the most beautiful mountains in the world." Merriam was the world's expert on the central Oregon John Day Basin fossil beds and likely had passed by Mt. Shasta many times during his studies. At one point J. C. Merriam explored the McCloud River in the company of C. Hart Merriam (see Merriam, H. C. "Wyntoon" 1957).
      Dr. J. C. Merriam greatly influenced the course of American scientific research. According to the Dictionary of American Biography, J. C. Merriam, as president of the Carnegie Institution from 1920 to 1938, and as a member of a panel of science advisors to F. D. Roosevelt, was a leader in the efforts to create a national climate of opinion favorable to the encouragement and support of scientific research. J. C. Merriam, in addition to earlier positions as president of the Paleontological Society of America in 1917 and of the Geological Society of America in 1919, was a conservationist who co-founded in 1917 the Save-the Redwoods League and served as its president for nearly a quarter-century.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS919].

[MS1039].          Mount Shasta City.  City of Mt. Shasta General Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Report. Draft Version. July 6, 1992. Appendix: Volcanic Hazards.  July 6, 1992. Contains recommendations to the City of Mt. Shasta on ways to evaluate and plan for volcanic hazards. Section headings are: Earthquakes, Airfalls, Lava Flows, Lava Domes, Pyroclastic and Lateral Blasts, Volcanic Gases, Debries Flows, Landslides, Conclusions and Recommendations.
      Contains several illustrations and maps. Emphasis is on long-term planning to minimize damage in the event of a disaster. Calls for zoning which places development away from potential flow pathways. Even architectural details can be planned: i.e., building steep sloped roofs for shedding ash accumulation.
      The authors state that "Mt. Shasta has erupted at least once every 600-800 years for the past 10,000 years and its most recent eruption was 206 years ago in 1786 (Christiansen)." Note, however, that there is no discussion of the fact that there is little hard evidence to support the 1786 date of an eruption (see Laperouse Carte Particuli¸re...No. 31, in: Laperouse Atlas... 1798).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1039].

[MS503].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. State Park Now, National Park Later. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Nov. 15, 1928. p. 1. Contains a letter from M. Hall McAllister, under whose impetus the Sierra Club's Horse Camp cabin was built in the early 1920s, outlining a plan to make a state park out of Mt. Shasta. He adds that: "We see by the press the enormous business that is given annually to such places as Mount Rainier, the Yosemite and Yellowstone Parks, and what should be done is to have the twenty northern counties of California build a good auto road to Horse Camp and erect a fine hotel and you will quickly see the result. Thousands of visitors and a big business for all within the sight of Shasta."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS503].

[MS646].          [Mount Shasta Herald]. Forest Service Trades for Panther Creek Site. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Oct. 8, 1936. Includes the statement that: "A land and timber exchange was worked out with the Schmitt Bros. Lumber company cooperating with the local forest service officials to get this land into the government hands in order that a regulation camp grounds could be built there when the Memorial highway is completed."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS646].

[MS2118].          Office of the Asst. to the Secretary of Defense (Chemical Matters).  Mt. Shasta (FUDS testing site).  no date? Two page summary report plus cover letter and attached map of California.     'FUDS  Activities at this Site: In December 1943 the Chemical Warfare Service began design of a highly mobile laboratory unit for the proposed laboratory teams accompanying task forces in the combat zone. The portable unit for gas intelligence missions weighed 3,293 pounds and was packed in 7 plywood boxes and 9 smaller cases that could be stowed in a single 2 1/2 ton truck. It was assembled and standardized in October 1944 as the M3 mobile laboratory. As the battle lines shifted from North Africa across the Mediterranean, the National Defense Research Committee (NRDC) sent a mobile unit group from the University if California to Mount Shasta. The investigation of the group was chiefly concerned with clouds of nonpersistent gas released from 100-pound M47A2 bombs. A NRDC report was prepared on the chemical warfare tests carried out on the slopes of Mount Shasta. The report indicates that the bombs were filled with butane and statically fired to observe dispersion patterns through the forest.' [FUDS=Formerly Used Defense Site]. Report states that an archive research report is underway.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2118].

[MS1199].          Raker, John E.  [Letter to the Mount Shasta Herald, Feb. 27, 1925, concerning the Mount Shasta National Park].  Washington, D. C.: Feb. 27, 1925. Letter from the Congressional sponsor of the 1912 and 1925 House of Representative bills to establish a Mount Shasta National Park. The letter is an appeal for support: "The attitude of your valuable paper on this proposed legislation will be of material assistance in helping to secure the improvement and proper use of one of the great scenic wonders of the United States."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1199].

[MS2117].          [Redding Record Searchlight]. Mt. Shasta was Army WWII Test Site. In: Redding Record Searchlight. Nov. 24, 1993. Sec A. p. 1. Subtitle: "The military did not use chemical warfare agents when it tested bomps on the slopes of Mt. Shasta during World War II to observe gas dispersion." " ...100-pound bombs exploded on the slopes of Mt. Shasta. The bombs were filled with butane and detonated so the researchers could see how the gas dispersed through the forest."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2117].

[MS896].          Rhodes, Philip T. [Mt. Shasta environmental issues: editorials]. In: Shasta: Newsletter of the Mount Shasta Resource Council. 1976-1985? Vols. 1-10. Contains detailed editorials on various Mt. Shasta wilderness and/or ski development proposals. Philip Rhodes was an outspoken critic of several different ski area proposals. His editorials often resulted from conversations with principals in the controversies.
      The editorials taken as a whole contain a wealth of historical detail derived from the author's research into the history of Mt. Shasta logging and recreation. 26. Environmental Issues.  [MS896].

[MS502].          Rhodes, Philip T. One Last Chance for Shasta. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. June-Aug., 1977. Vol. 62. No. 6. pp. 49-51. Begins with a comparison of the similarities of the two highest peaks of the Cascade Range, Mt. Rainier and Mt. Shasta: "...both are greatly renowned and loved for their beauty. Yet in one critical respect, the peaks are vastly different: much of the upper slopes of Washington's Mt. Rainier are unspoiled and unthreatened within the boundaries of Mt. Rainier National Park; Mt. Shasta, however, is almost completely unprotected, its forests subject to clearcutting..." (p. 49). The author explains that the checkerboard pattern of private land ownership on the forested slopes of Mt. Shasta has prevented any meaningful protection of the mountain's integrity. As one of many cited examples of the power of private groups to exploit the mountain, the author states that: "In the summer of 1974, Southern Pacific logged its lands all the way to timberline on the east slope within the roadless area, claiming it could no longer afford to pay taxes on the land without cutting" (p. 50).
     This 1977 article is written as an appeal to stop the logging and ski expansion on Mt. Shasta. The author, a well-known Mt. Shasta environmentalist and mountaineer, presents to the Sierra Club readership several alternative wilderness proposals. 26. Environmental Issues.  [MS502].

[MS968].          Shrawder, John F.  Evaluation Report on Mount Shasta for National Park Service Natural Landmark Program.  1973.  Unpublished typewritten manuscript., located in the Shasta-Trinity National Forests Supervisor's Office, Cultural Resource Management files, box 17, Siskiyou County History. Author was a retired professor of Environmental Resources at California State University, Sacramento, CA.      Contains about 10 pages of text and a few photographs. Mostly a subjective report suporting the idea of a Pational Park at Mount Shasta. The author considers Mount Lassen and Mount Ranier to be first and second in importance as volcanic resources in the west, with Mount Shasta third in significance.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS968].

[MS1214].          Sisson Promotion Association.  [letter to President William H. Taft, dated Feb. 12, 1912].  Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Feb. 23, 1912. An elaborate document calling for a Mt. Shasta National Park. Contains many articulations of the form: 'WHEREAS, MT. SHASTA, being one of the foremost mountains of the world...,' etc.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1214].

[MS381].          Smith, Michael L.  Pacific Visions: California Scientists and the Environment 1850-1915.  New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987. A thorough survey of California science from the Gold Rush times to the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. The emphasis is on those scientists who studied nature. Presented are the reasons for the scientific undertakings of the time period and also how the grand environment of California shaped the personalities and opinions of the scientists themselves. In particular the book explores how Mt. Shasta affected William Brewer, Clarence King, and John Muir. Other scientists and explorers who dealt with Mt. Shasta are discussed in this book, but not in connection with the mountain per se; they include Alice Eastwood, George Davidson, Asa Gray, Willis Linn Jepson, Thomas Starr King,  Carleton Watkins, C. Hart Merriam, Theodore Roosevelt, John C. Frˇmont, and John Lemmon. The author implies that early California scientists were changed into environmentalists. The landscape itself offered a richness of experience which they recognized could be quickly wiped out by large commercial interests. By the end of the era, however, Smith contends that a new breed of politically astute engineers, unimpressed with the "sentimental" views of the earlier generation, managed the land with a cold and hard agenda. The author sums this up by saying: "The scientists who replaced them had been trained to view social activism as unprofessional. California's first scientific community had tried to take its message of environmentalism to the nation's leaders on the East Coast. Instead, managerial science had come to California" (p. 185).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS381].

[MS2090].          Sprague, G. Lynn Regional Forester U. S. F. S.  Letter to Carl Martin, July 21, 1998: Decision To Revoke Special Use Permits for Mount Shasta Ski Area.  July 21, 1998. From United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Regional Office, R5, San Francisco, CA.  3pp. Dated July 21, 1998. Sent to Carl Martin, principal in Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Inc.     3 page letter details the Regional Forester’s decision to revoke the “Term Special Use Permit” and the “Supplemental Special Use Permit” isssued to the Mt. Shasta Ski Area. The decision to revoke is based upon Clause 54 (.”..historic sites...”) and Clause16 (“...public interest requires termination...”) of each of the permits. Taking into account eligibility requirements under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, it was evident that “The Mount Shasta Cosmological District (a historic district comprised of various contributing features),” and “Panther Meadows (a Native American ceremonial site)” were eligible for the the national register, and that the Mt. Shasta Ski park would adversely effect the historical and current cultural traditions of several Native American Tribes; thus clause 54 was invoked. Clause 16 was invoked because “The Mt. Shasta Ski Area project would absorb an extraordinary amount of time, money and resources” over a period of many years, and that the expenditure of this extraordinary amount of resources was not in the public interest. There is an additional paragraph explaining how the current (i.e., 1998) Mt. Shasta Ski Park was meeting the public interest satisfactorally and thus obviating the need for another ski area.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS2090].

[MS504].          Stewart, Charles Lockwood 1907. National Park Movement, Its Origin and Development. In: Mount Shasta Herald. Mt. Shasta, Calif.: Oct. 13, 1927. p. 1. The author reviews the history of exploration of Mt. Shasta. He then briefly outlines several attempts in 1912-1913 to establish the Mt. Shasta National Park. H.R. 22353 was the proposed law under consideration. In that bill, 206,197 acres were to be set aside as the National Park. But 131,231 acres of that were patented land. The bill never went to vote. Later bills almost were passed, but according to the author, the 1914 eruption of Mt. Lassen made the competing proposal for a Mt. Lassen National Park more desirable to Congress.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS504].

[MS960].          Tyrell, Robert R.  [letter to Steade R. Craigo, Acting Director, State Historic Preservation Officer, dated July 20, 1992; with enclosures of historical research papers].  1992. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shasta-Trinity National Forests, Redding Calif. Contains accompanying documents and appendixes.     Letter represents the United States Forest Service's position as to recommendations that certain areas of Mt. Shasta or Mt. Shasta itself as a whole, should or should not be eligible for designation as National Register properties. Contains the following enclosures as background for the decisions of recommendation-- A: "Statement of Findings, Native American Interview and Data Collection Study of Mt. Shasta, California" by Dr. Dorothea Theodoratus and Dr. Nancy Evans (including interview summaries); B: "Historic Context--Mt. Shasta, California," by Dr. Winfield Henn; C: National Register Multiple Property Form..."Mt. Shasta in Native History and Culture"; D: National Register Historic Property Determination of Eligibility Form..."Panther Meadow"; E: National Register Historic Property Determination of Eligibility Form..."Native American Mythological Places"; F: Mt. Shasta National Register Forms Transmittal Letter, February 21, 1992; G: Public Comments to February 21, 1992 letter; H (?): "Mt. Shasta in Non-Native American History" by Pam Conners and Dan Elliott.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS960].

[MS680].          United States Congress, House of Representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.  Additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System: Oversight Hearing on the Mt. Shasta Wilderness, Weed, Ca., June 30, 1979. First Session on H. R. 3299.  Washington, D. C.: 1980. 96th Congress.     This book contains approximately 200 pages of testimony and letters for and against a proposed Mt. Shasta Wilderness Bill, HR 3299. Logging companies, spiritual organizations, the Sierra Club, ski area developers, lawyers, doctors, etc., present cogent arguments to preserve their respective uses of the land within the multiple use context. Some of the testimony is quite candid, and some is quite amusing. One participant reads a published poem about Mt. Shasta and the Great White Brotherhood  (p. 88), while another states that ecologically speaking the mountain could handle up to 10,000 skiers a day  (p. 99).
      Many of the conflicts between environmentalists and developers are brought out in the testimony. Some of the dialogue is downright biblical. One speaker said: "I just want to say I made a statement in my district a couple of years ago that we owed it to the Creator to keep a few of His lands the way He gave them to us--He or she gave them to us--and one of my constituents said, 'If the Creator was so interested in wilderness, why did He send his only Son down to Earth as a carpenter?' And that had us stumped for a bit, until one of my aides thought of the answer. He said, 'Well, you have to remember that his Son spent 40 days and 40 nights in the wilderness, in order to get His mission on this part.' And I thank you" (p. 71).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS680].

[MS1077].          United States Congress, House of Representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.  Designating Certain Public Lands in the State of California as Wilderness: Report together with Supplemental Views to Accompany H.R. 7702.  [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. G.P.O., 1980. House Report Ń 96th Congress, 2nd Session; No. 96-1223     Report favors the bill as amended, and includes the proposed Mount Shasta Wilderness in its discussion. Mt. Shasta section begins: "The 37,000-acre wilderness proposal will protect the upper reaches of the most prominent, and arguably the most spectacular, geological feature in Northern California" (p. 21). Several paragraphs of the report detail aspects of the mountain such as "the mountain also has spiritual and religious values for many native Americans and others.," and "...the Committee agreed to the deletion of some 620 acres from the President's wilderness proposal in the Giddy Giddy Gulch and Sand Flat areas. This area possesses a fine stand of Shasta red fir and is popular...however, it is suitable for the possible relocation of mechanized skiing..." and "The Committee further notes that there are extensive checkerboard land holdings within the proposed wilderness. This issue is discussed at length in the 'Land Exchange' portion of this Report" (pp. 21-22).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1077].

[MS1078].          United States Congress, House of representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.  Designating Certain Public Lands in the State of California as Wilderness: Report together with minority and Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 4083.  [Washington, D. C.]: U.S. G.P.O., 1981. House Report Ń 97th Congress, 1st Session; No. 97-181. July 16, 1981.     Report favors the bill as amended, and includes unchanged the wording, about the proposed Mt. Shasta Wilderness, as found in its Report No. 96-1223.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1078].

[MS1079].          United States Congress, House of representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.  Entitled the California Wilderness Act of 1983: Report together with Minority and Supplemental Views to Accompany H.R. 1437.  [Washington, D. C.]: U.S. G.P.O., 1983. House Report Ń 98th Congress, 1st Session; No. 98-40. March 18, 1983.     Report favors the bill as ammended, and includes unchanged the wording, about the proposed Mt. Shasta Wilderness, as found in its Reports No. 96-1223 and No. 97-181.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1079].

[MS59].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region.  Final Environmental Impact Statement: Shasta - Trinity National Forests, Mount Shasta Ski Area.  Redding, Calif.: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, [1988]. This final (1988) Environmental Impact Statement on a major proposed Mount Shasta Ski area describes the various impacts of development which would be the likely outcome of each of six proposed ski development alternatives. These six alternatives concern only a specific timber line region on the south side of Mount Shasta itself. The EIS contains a history of the circumstances leading up to the six alternatives.
      This EIS consists of four major chapters:  I. "PURPOSE AND NEED", consisting of discussions of the political and social controversies and histories leading up to the need for a final EIS.  II. "ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED, INCLUDING THE PROPOSED ACTION", consisting of a lengthy study of each of the six alternatives, and including a comparison of the alternatives. III. "THE AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT", consisting of detailed studies of the preexisting physical and biological factors (i.e. air quality, avalanche hazards, climate, fire hazards, geology, geothermal resources, hydrology and water quality, research natural areas, soils, snow conditions, vegetation, visual resources, wilderness, and wildlife)  and of the human environment (i.e. community services/fiscal impacts, cultural resources, economics, land use and ownership, noise, recreation, skier demand/financial feasibility, social, transportation, and utilities.) IV. "ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES", consisting of estimates of the consequences of each of the six alternative ski areas proposals on the physical and biological environment and on the human environment.  The EIS contains many maps. Each chapter has a valuable bibliography I-p. 16, II-p. 92, III-pp. 99-102, IV-pp. 107. Numerous Appendices are included, including those on management practices, vegetation associations, wildlife species lists, financial feasibility models, and other important materials. There is an index on pp. VII-1 - VII-4
      Note that Appendix K (pp. K.1-143), on Public Comments on the Draft EIS and Forest Service Responses, makes long and interesting reading. This appendix provides material representative of public opinion of the various general and specific considerations of building a ski area on Mount Shasta, and contains examples of the Forest Service's methods for agreeing with or rejecting these opinions.
      Note that this Mount Shasta Ski Area FEIS, unlike most other EIS documents, it contains no date of publication or printing, making it difficult for future readers to determine exactly when the book was issued. Also this FEIS gives almost no account of the hundreds of 19th and early 20th Century works about Mt. Shasta in the fields of literature, art, religion, and science.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS59].

[MS1058].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region.  AppendixŃFinal Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement:  Mount Shasta Ski Area. Shasta-Trinity National Forests, Mt. Shasta and McCloud Ranger Districts, Siskiyou California.  [Redding, Calif.]: USDA. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Region, 1990. Contains background documents of the Forest Service Chief's Appeal Decision of October 30, 1989, plus other documents relating to appeals, public comments, and management requirements. See also the Final Supplement to the FEIS.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1058].

[MS1057].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region.  Final Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement:  Mount Shasta Ski Area. Shasta-Trinity National Forests, Mt. Shasta and McCloud Ranger Districts, Siskiyou California.  [Redding, Calif.]: USDA. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Region, 1990. From the Summary Introduction" "This is a summary of the Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a downhill ski development on Mt. Shasta, issued by the USDA Forest Service in September 1988. The FEIS provided alternatives and an analysis of the environmental, economic, and social effects of a site-specific proposal submitted by Mt. Shasta Ski Area, Inc. in January 1985. The Forest Supervisor's decision to authorize the development of a ski area to be constructed in three phases and capable of serving 4800 skiers at one time (SAOT) was appealed to the Regional Forester who subsequently affirmed the Forest Supervisor's decision in whole. The Regional Forester's decision was then appealed to the chief of the Forest Service who directed the Regional Forester to oversee the preparation of a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement that would consider a range of alternative sites and impacts of possible future development on private land" (p. S-1)."
      Contains many color maps and black and white charts. Contains a list of preparers noting education and experience. Because this FEIS Supplement was authorized only after many legal appeals, it contains information required but absent from the original FEIS.
      Note that there is a separately published appendix: "Appendix Final Supplement to Final Environmental Impact Statement Mt. Shasta Ski Area."     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1057].

[MS60].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region.  Record of Decision: Final Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement:  Mount Shasta Ski Area. Shasta-Trinity National Forests, Mt. Shasta and McCloud Ranger Districts, Siskiyou, California.  [Redding, Calif.]: USDA. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Region, Dec., 1990. This Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed Mount Shasta Ski Area was required after appeals resulted in an October 1989 legal decision for a supplementary EIS. The supplement, with a record of decision by the Forest Service as to the selection of a plan for a new Ski Area, was completed and printed in December of 1990. The document addresses environmental concerns raised after the publication of the 1988 Final EIS, and proposes a reduced alternative plan based on a composite of five action alternatives considered in the 1988 Final EIS. This is a major document in the history of the ongoing (as of 1992) proposal to develop a major high altitude ski area on Mount Shasta.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS60].

[MS1065].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region.  Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Shasta-Trinity National Forests: Mt. Shasta Wilderness Plan.  [Redding, Calif.]: USDA. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Region, [Mar., 1990]. Draft plan presenting four alternatives for possible management of the 38,000 Mt. Shasta Wilderness. The four alternatives were: No Action; Maximum Wilderness Protection; Maximum Recreation Opportunity; and a Wilderness/Recreation Mix. Issues include wilderness carrying capacity, permit systems, water and sanitation, domestic pets, wood fires, meadow protection, outfitters, riding and pack stock, trail maintenance, etc. Contains a call for comments before May 7, 1990. Contains detailed analysis of all issues. Contains numerous tables, charts, appendices. Bibliography found in section VIII pp. 1-3. Cover photo and chapter divider illustrations are reproductions of the classic Mt. Shasta glacier engravings found in the U.S. Geological Survey Fifth Annual Report, 1883-84.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1065].

[MS1007].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forests.  Mt. Shasta Wilderness: A Proposal.  [Redding, Calif.]: Shasta-Trinity National Forest, June 28, 1978. Stamped 'Draft Copy.' Proposal made available to the public June 29, 1978. Final draft 'not filed. Recommendations incorporated into the Rare II FES filed January 4, 1979.'     Detailed report on the major issues resulting from designating 16,740 acres of Mt. Shasta land, mostly above timberline, as a "Wilderness." Included topics in the study are: Physiology; Visual Resource; Climate; Geology; Soils; Mineral Resource; Water Resource; Air Quality; Wilderness Resource, and the need for more Wilderness; Plants; Cultural Resource (historical, early settlers, spiritual, mythological); Recreation Resource (hiking, camping, off-road, downhill skiing); Wildlife Resource; Timber Resource." The study enumerates the evaluation criteria, alternative proposals, and preferred alternatives. Contains maps. Includes letters of intent from landowners. The paper also summarizes public comments which pointed out numerous significant errors in an earlier draft of the proposal. For example, portions of the study area were assigned improper wilderness values, and sustained yield timber harvests were incorrectly multiplied by a factor of ten due to a typographical error. The numerous public comments, and the forest service's responses, demonstrate a variety of opinions as to the value of "Wilderness."
      "The Mt. Shasta Wilderness study was initiated by an interdisciplinary team which gathered and evaluated resource information. Description and development of alternatives, and alternative decision analysis and recommendations were performed by a group consisting of the Forest Supervisor, the Deputy Forest Supervisor, and two District Rangers. The interdisciplinary team consisted of 14 specialists in wilderness, soil, wildlife, recreation, archaeology, timber management, transportation planning, minerals, social sciences, and economics" (p. 2).     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1007].

[MS1063].          United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forests.  Mt. Shasta Ski Area Facilities Plan: Environmental Assessment.  [Redding, Calif.]: USDA. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Region, Feb., 1986. The first of a series of environmental impact studies about a proposed ski area on a site specific 1,690 acre permit area on Mt. Shasta. Contains maps, charts, and a bibliography. Some of this material is found only in this report and not in the later reports.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS1063].

[MS118].          [Yreka Journal]. National Park in Siskiyou and Shasta Counties. In: Yreka Journal. Yreka, Calif.: January 4, 1888. Also reproduced in:  Boggs, Mae Helene Bacon.,  'My Playhouse was a Concord Coach: An Anthology of Newspaper Clippings and Documents Relating to Those Who Made California History During the Years 1822-1888.' Oakland, California: Howell-North Press, 1942, p.740.    "National Park in Siskiyou and Shasta Counties. A Scheme has been suggested by parties below [not listed in Boggs edition] and forwarded by the railroad company, to reserve as a national park, all that strip of territory along the upper Sacramento river, between Edgewood in this county, and Redding in Shasta county. The scenery of the country above named is of the grandest and most picturesque character. There are Castle Rocks, Mossbrae Falls, the five peaked cone of the Black Butte, gigantic forests, mineral springs, canyon walls, large caves, beautiful streams and lakes, and the towering summit of Mt. Shasta. The proposed area would cover fully 200 square miles, with the C. & O. Railroad running through its center for 75 miles or more." The above proposal was printed shortly after the completion of the California and Oregon Railroad in 1886, which allowed, for the first time, trains to pass from Redding, California to Ashland, Oregon.     26. Environmental Issues.  [MS118].


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