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Chapter 7

Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42

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The explorers Peter Skene Ogden, Alexander Roderick McLeod, Francis Ermatinger, Michel Laframboise, and John Work, as well as the administrators Alexander Caulfield Anderson, John Douglas, John McLoughlin, and George Simpson, are all famous Hudson's Bay Company personalities who in their own writings have mentioned at one time or another the names "Shasta" or "Siskiyou." Their writings are relevant to the history of Mt. Shasta, the Siskiyou mountains, the Pit River, Mt. McLoughlin, Klamath Lake, and other places of the Shasta region. The location of the "Pass of the Siskiyou," as noted by Gibbs in 1863, is of importance to determining the location of Alexander R. McLeod's "Chaste Mount." A number of entries in this section were selected for their relevance to the origins of the name "Siskiyou." Several of the entries in this section concern the "Mount Sistise" or "Mount Sastise," and the "Sasty" River, both named by Peter Skene Ogden during his 1826-1827 exploration of the mountains called today the Siskiyous. Ogden's spellings are probably the very first recorded of the name which eventually became known as "Shasta."

Visit the online bibliography to search bibliographic entries or browse the entries below.
The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS1100].††††††††† Anderson, Alexander Caulfield 1814-1884.† Handbook and Map to the Gold Region of Frazer and Thompson's Rivers with Table of Distances: To Which is Appended Chinnook Jargon Language Used.† San Francisco, Calif.: J. J. Le Count, 1858. Contains an 1858 dictionary defining "Siskiyou" as "Bob-tail;" "Skubbyou" as "Skunk;" and "Olikhiyou" as Seal. Note that these are the only words ending in "-you" to be found in this dictionary; all three are apparently names for mammals, and one would guess that a "Siskiyou," according to this dictionary, was a bob-tailed cat. This is the first recorded instance known of "Siskiyou" = "bob-tailed" and predates the well-known Gibbs 1863 Chinook Jargon Dictionary definition of Siskiyou as a Cree Indian word for a bob-tailed horse (see Gibbs 1863).
†††† Note that A. C. Anderson vigorously denied authoring this dictionary which the publisher appended to his Handbook ... (see A. C. Anderson's manuscript History of the Northwest Coast in the Bancroft Library). Anderson thought that the dictionary, produced in San Francisco, was a miserable work appended without his knowledge.
††††† However, at some point A. C. Anderson communicated to George Gibbs a complete story of the origins of the name "Siskiyou," a story which nonetheless also used the idea of "Siskiyou = bobtail," but defined "Siskiyou" as a Cree Indian name for a particular type of bob-tailed racehorse, one of which perished in 1829-1830 on A. R. McLeod's ill-fated journey over a pass later named for the "siskiyou" (see Gibbs 1863).
†††† Historian Harry Wells described a somewhat more detailed and different version of the bob-tailed horse story in 1889 (see Wells History of Oregon 1889). One of the earliest known discussions of the origins of the name "Siskiyou" was by J. R. Snyder in 1852, in his comments on the naming of the newly formed Siskiyou County (see Snyder 1852, see also Thornton 1973). The earliest published use of the name Siskiyou may have been the Duflot de Mofras 1844 map name of 'Mont Siscayou' as the name of present Mt. McLoughlin.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1100].

[MS317].††††††††† Anderson, Alexander Caulfield 1814-1884. Notes on the Indian Tribes of British North America and the Northwest Coast: Communicated to George Gibbs. In: The Historical Magazine. Mar., 1863. Vol. 7. No. 3. pp. 73-81. Signed and dated by Anderson from 'Cathlamet, Washington Ter., Aug., 1855.'†††† In an 1863 Chinook Jargon Dictionary the ethnologist George Gibbs credited A. C. Anderson as the source of the story that "Siskiyou" meant"bob-tailed" (see Gibbs 1863).† Because Anderson's "Notes on the Indians..." was sent to Gibbs at about the same time as the dictionary was published, it might have been the document which gave Gibbs the story; unfortunately this document contains no reference to the "Siskiyou."
†††† Note that Anderson's unpublished handwritten manuscript entitled History of the Northwest Coast likewise does not contain the "Siskiyou" story.
††††† Hudson's Bays Company officer A. C. Anderson was not only a friend of George Gibbs, but also had been a host to Charles Wilkes at Fort Nisqually in 1841. Anderson later became a friend and informant to the great historian H. H. Bancroft. 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS317].

[MS1037].††††††††† Applegate, Jesse 1811-1888.† Views of Oregon History.† Yoncalla, OR: 1878. Manuscript. In: Oregon Manuscripts, microfilm #4470. Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley.†††† Only pages '29' and '30' seen. A hand-written manuscript of systematic corrections and additions to some unspecified book, perhaps a book in preparation by some other author. Applegate gives his impressions as to the historical accuracy of whatever it was he was reading for correction. Applegate refers to† 'Chapter 22 from page 279 to 287 inclusive' and says in part:† "Mountain men...My own experience was much harder. I had not alway's even 'boiled wheat' to give my children." Applegate refers to 'Chaper 23. from page 288 to 295 inclusive.' Applegate refers to 'Chapter 24. pages 296 to 303 inclusive' and states that "This chapter contains some account of the presence of Wilkes exploring squadron in Oregon waters." For p. 302 Applegate writes: Another difficulty was submitted to Commodore Wilkes and a nautical man by name of 'Wood' and eleven others most of whom had been whale men built a small schooner on Oak Island in the Willamette river about one mile above where the city of Portland now stands, about the time he was ready to use them 'Master' Wood applied to Dr. McLaughlin for the naval stores necessary to prepare his vessel for sea. The Dr. refused the stores on the ground that Wood had no papers, and there was no one in Oregon having authority to give him any. That if caught at sea without papers he, Wood was liable to be captured as a pirate. And the Dr. added that so far as he knew 'Wood intended to become one,' This and the disappointment excited Wood's ire. [illegible.......]but remember sir I have an 'uncle' that I can expect here shortly rich enough to buy you out and send you all packing -'I am glad to hear so rich a man as your Uncle is coming to this country-who is it Mr. Wood-What's his name, Mr. Wood-I would like to know him Mr. Wood? His name is Uncle Sam, by G-d sir and I hope you will know him.'†††† It was Dr. McLoughlin himself who related this story to Capt. Wilkes and recommended the granting of the 'sea otter' the want of which only stood in the way of obtaining the needed stores. The vessel was sold at a good price, and used in the navigation of the Sacramento river, the proceeds of the sale (or most of it) invested in cattle which were driven to Oregon, making many of the builders of this little vessel wealthy men, and useful citizens of the land of their adoption."There is little material here on these 2 pages that dirctly relates to Mount Shasta, but other pages of this or the unspecified book might reveal other clues to the place names and history of the mountain.
†††† Note that "Wood" was most likely the same man who had traveled with Young and Edwards from California† to Oregon in 1837 and with the Wilkes-Emmons party to California in 1841.
For other references to this Applegate document see: William R. Sampson. John McLoughlin's Business Correspondence 1847-48. Seattle: Univ. of Wash. Press, 1973, p. 157. See also Elliott 1910. See also a letter from Jesse Applegate, date 1878, from Yoncalla, Ore. as described in Cecil K. Byrd The Westward Pioneer, 1989, a catalog of Western Americana holdings in the Lilly Library.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1037].

[MS1133].††††††††† Applegate, O. C.† The Name Siskiyou Means 'The Six Stones': Capt. O. C. Applegate Explains the Origin of the Name Siskiyou — 'Siskiyou' Does Not Mean 'Bobtail' . In: Rippon, Cy and Rippon, Sally.† North-South Trail: Three Pans of Dirt, Sisc-Kaou — Siskiyou, Wyreka — Yreka, The 1906 Explosion, The Old Stone House, and other Bits of Historical Data.† Weed, Calif.: The authors, 1979. pp. 6-7.†† 'Third Printing Winter —1979.'† The article by Captain O. C. Applegate first appeared in the Ashland Valley Record, Mar. 31, 1910.†††† O. C. Applegate states that "Now, I have considered this matter, and while the name may have been given to the region because of six prominent stones, and possibly not small stones, but probably in sight from some particular camp, I am of the opinion that the region was identified and their trail outlined through this mountainous region by the Great Rocks and Rocky peaks, among them it would be fair to enumerate two Table Rocks, Pilot Rock, Castle Rocks, and possibly Mt. Shasta, Mt. Pit, and Black Butte themselves." O. C. Applegate does not say for certain which of the peaks were the "Six" but he feels his theory is a worthy one.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1133].

[MS924].††††††††† Bancroft, Hubert Howe 1832-1918.† Alexander Caulfield Anderson, Fur Trader and Scholar. In: Friesen, J. and Ralston H. K.† Historical Essays on British Colombia.† McClelland and Stewart Limited: 1976. pp. 1-4.†† First published in Bancroft, H. H., History of British Columbia, 1792-1887. San Francisco: 1887.††††† H. H. Bancroft originally wrote this article as a lengthy footnote in his History of British Columbia. The article indirectly underscores the reliability of Hudson Bay Company officer A. C. Anderson as the source for George Gibbs' dictionary entry of "Siskiyou" as meaning Bob-tailed horse, and the "Pass of the Siskiyou" as the place where the bob-tailed racehorse and hundreds of other horses perished in 1830 (see Gibbs 1863).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS924].

[MS288].††††††††† Binns, Archie 1899.† Peter Skene Ogden: Fur Trader.† Portland, Ore.: Binfords and Mort, Publishers, 1967.† The introduction states that the author "meticulously researched every potential source of information on Ogden, his heritage, and his time. The research and writing consumed five years." This author credits Ogden with naming present-day Mount Shasta; current research indicates that Ogden was referring to present-day Mount McLoughlin (see LaLande, 1987). Nonetheless Binn's book is a useful chronological biography of Ogden containing many quotations from Ogden's journals.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS288].

[MS160].††††††††† Bush, C. C. and Shurtleff, Dr. Benjamin. McLeod River. In: The Independent. Reading [Redding], Calif.† Sept. 12, 1878. Reprinted in Boggs 1942, p. 647.††† Very important letter of research on the naming of the McLeod [later McCloud] River. Bush states that "a few weeks since at Soda Springs I had a conversation with George Campbell, brother-in-law of Ross McCloud, in which he stated that he believed that the river was named before Ross came to the State, and after this man McLeod of Oregon." Ross McCloud was a well-known personality of the Upper Sacramento river canyon region in the 1850s, and many people naturally but incorrectly assume the McCloud River was named for Ross McCloud. It appears from this article and also from early maps, that fur trapping expedition leader Alexander Roderick McLeod of the Hudson's Bay Company is the rightful namesake.
††††† Bush also quotes a letter from the respected Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff who says: "I have met W.H. Winter of Fall River Mills, in your county; he [Winter] is an old pioneer, and has a very retentative memory. He came through from Oregon to California in 1844 (see Overton and Winter 1932). He says the river bore the name of McLeod long before the eventful year of 1849, and reminded me, without being asked, that the correct name was not McCloud, but McLeod."
††††† Shurtleff also mentions "I went last evening to see the venerable Col. Clyman, who lives about two and a half miles northwest of Napa. He is 85 years old now, and he is the Nestor of pioneers. He came through from Oregon to California in 1845 (see Clyman "Diary..." In Camp 1960). Col. Clyman says he has an indistinct recollection that there was a man by the name of McLeod..."††††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† MS160].

[MS1256].††††††††† [California Fish and Game]. Obituary of George McCloud. In: California Fish and Game. 1922. Vol. 8. pp. 121-122. States that the McCloud River was named for 1850's pioneer Ross A. McCloud, father of George McCloud. "In 1886 he [George McCloud] came into possession of a half interest in the Upper Soda Springs resort, and with his sister, Mrs. Elda Massen, operated this popular resort for a number of years. During this period he established a resort on McCloud River, that was named after his father. The best information that the writer can obtain regarding the origin of the name of McCloud River, is that it was named after Mr. McCloud's father, Ross A. McCloud. The statement has been disputed by some, who claim that the river was named after a man named McLeod, who was in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company as a trapper, but there is not any doubt in the minds of the first settlers that the McCloud River was named after Ross. A. McCloud, who came to Siskiyou County in the early fifties† and prospected on the river that was given his name by early settlers."† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1256].

[MS909].††††††††† Cline, Gloria Griffen.† Peter Skene Ogden and the Hudson's Bay Company.† Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974. Contains an extensive bibliography of the manuscripts, maps, and other documents of Peter Skene Ogden.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS909].

[MS563].††††††††† Dixon, Roland Burrage 1875-1934.† [letter to Charles L. Stewart, July 19, 1928, concerning Merriam's Ogden - Shasta Dispute].† 1928. Source: Stuhl I† [Possibly in the Collection of Harvard University.]†††† 40. Find List/07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS563].

[MS371].††††††††† Elliott, Thompson C.† Peter Skene Ogden: Fur Trader.† Portland, Ore.: The Ivy Press, 1910. First published in the Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sept., 1910.†††† Contains a reference to Jesse Applegate's mention about a manuscript written by Peter Skene Ogden (See also Applegate 1878). Jesse Applegate was the namesake of the Applegate Trail and the Applegate River. Applegate was one of the earliest pioneers to live within the tribal boundaries of the southern Oregon bands of Shasta Indians. Elliott quotes Bancroft who quotes Applegate. For clarity's sake the entire paragraph follows: "Beyond his personal letters the extent of Mr. Ogden's literary work is not certain. In the Bancroft Collection there is a manuscript (dictated) by Mr. Jesse Applegate, who was one of the most intelligent and observing among the Oregon pioneers of the Forties, which states: 'Peter Skene Ogden wrote very extensively on the Indians--he showed the manuscript to Mr. Applegate; it comprised his own early experiences; he was the discoverer of the Humboldt River. We had no reading and Mr. Ogden gave it to me as a Winter's amusement. It was full of interesting episodes. Mr. Applegate revised and made many suggestions. It ran back to the union of the two companies. Mr. Ogden brought it to Washington Irving who undertook to edit it, but died before its completion" (p. 40).
††††† Elliott also notes two other sources who state that the Ogden book was actually published (p. 40). Elliott states that before dying Washington Irving had left instructions to destroy all papers, meaning that the Ogden manuscript was destroyed. It is now generally agreed that Ogden's book was published in England in 1853; the book has been reprinted (see Ogden 1972).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS371].

[MS1250].††††††††† Elliott, Thompson C. The Peter Skene Ogden Journals. In: Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. 1910. Vol. 11. pp. 201-222. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #158.†††† Note that this is the Agnes Laut transcription. According to Jeff LaLande this transcription contained many inaccuracies as well as an interpretation of Ogden's 1826-27 route which was not necessarily correct (see LaLande 1987). 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42/40. Find List.† [MS1250].

[MS1208].††††††††† Ermatinger, Francis.† Fur Trade Letters of Francis Ermatinger: Written to His Brother Edward during His Service with the Hudson's Bay Company 1818-1853.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980. States that there are two versions of Sir George Simpson's account of Ermatinger's 1841 Oregon to California trip (see Simpson Narrartive 1847). Simpson's secretary actually wrote the version that mentions "Pit Mountain" as the place where "about ten years ago...our trappers had lost...the whole of their furs and nearly three hundred horses," (pp. 242-243).
†††† Note that the extensive bibliography (pp. 297-305) lists references of Chief Factor John McLoughlin's letters to Ermatinger; these letters may contain route instructions, etc.††††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1208].

[MS1132].††††††††† Fleming, R. Harvey.† Minutes of Council Northern Department of Rubert Land, 1821-31.† Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1940. pp. 448-450.†† Appendix.†††† Contains a biography of Alexander Roderick McLeod. Details A. R. McLeod's movements in southern Oregon and northern California. According to the author, McLeod was in southern Oregon as early as 1826: "From May to August, 1826, he was the leader of a trapping expedition to the Umpqua River." He also reached the Klamath River, along the coast, on Jan. 11, 1827. McLeod's other trips, including the ill-fated 1830 journey back from California, are discussed in general terms.
†††† This book also contains a brief biography of Michel Laframboise (p. 444).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1132].

[MS696].††††††††† Gibbs, George 1815-1873.† †A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon .† Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, Mar., 1863. Contains a definition of the name "Siskiyou" with reference to A. R. McLeod's "Pass of the Siskiyou" (p. 23). George Gibbs's definition of the name "Siskiyou" has implications for identifying the location of A. R. McLeod's ill-fated northward route east of Mt. Shasta in 1830. Note that Gibbs credits A.C. Anderson for the definition.
††††† Gibbs states: "Sis'-ki-you, n. Cree. (Anderson.) A bob-tailed horse. This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range of mountains separating Oregon and California, and also on a county in the latter State. The origin of this designation, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the year 1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack train, was overtaken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his animals, including a noted bob-tailed race horse. His Canadian followers, in compliment to their chief, or 'bourgeois,' named the place the Pass of the Siskiyou,--an appellation subsequently adopted as the veritable Indian name of the locality, and which thence extended to the whole range, and adjoining district."
††††† Note that several items are of background interest in the Gibbs-Anderson definition. On the one hand Gibbs was incorrect in the date of 1828, it should have been 1830. Gibbs was also incorrect in that McLeod's first name was Alexander, not Archibald.
††††† On the other hand, and more importantly, A. C. Anderson, source of the definition,† has a high degree of credibility, having arrived at Fort Vancouver in 1832. He was a highly valued friend and informant to H. H. Bancroft.† Bancroft wrote a brief biography explaining how Anderson was the most scholarly of the Hudson's Bay officers. Anderson was in a position to learn the tales and history of the Hudson's Bay Company's prior expeditions.
††††† Harry Wells in 1889 elaborated on the bob-tailed theory and stated: " old white, bobtailed horse, belonging to Jean Baptiste Pairroult, was stolen while they were camped on the mountain, 'Siskiyou' meaning 'bobtail' in the patois French of the Canadian trappers" (see Wells Popular History of Oregon 1889). Perhaps the most pertainent confirmation of Anderson's story was presented by Lewis L. McArthur who quotes Lacombe's 1874 Cree dictionary word 'siskiyawatim' as referring to 'a spotted horse or possibly a packhorse'(see McArthur Geographic Names of Oregon 1992).† Note also that† Cree Indian children were among those at Fort Vancouver in 1832 (according to R. G. Montgomery in The White Headed Eagle 1934, p. 177). There are many other proposed origins to the name 'Siskiyou' though the Gibbs-Anderson story is one of the most plausible.
††††† The earliest published use of the name "Siskiyou" was probably by the Frenchman Duflot de Mofras (see de Mofras "map" 1844 In Wheat 1958), who showed a 'Mont Siscayou' for present-day Mount McLoughlin. De Mofras visited Fort Vancouver in 1841.
††††† It still is not positively known where to locate the route of A. R. McLeod in 1829-1830, though several clues, including P. B. Reading's 1849 map showing "McLouds Camp" southeast of Mt. Shasta,† suggest McLeod's route was up the McCloud River and east of Mt. Shasta. Where he crossed the present Siskiyou mountains is still a mystery.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS696].

[MS684].††††††††† Helfrich, David. The Applegate Trail: Parts I & II. In : Klamath Echoes. 1971 and 1976. No. 9 and No. 14. Part I, 1971, pp. 1-106; Part II, 1976, pp. 1-102. David Helfrich, managing editor.†††† Pertains to Jesse Applegate's copy of Peter Skene Ogden's map of the Siskiyou region. The author presents an interpretation of the origins and route of the 1846 Applegate trail. The Hudson's Bay Company's trails were to some degree followed by Jesse Applegate during his 1846 expedition to establish a new route from Oregon to Nevada. Thus the history of the Applegate Trail may offer clues to discovering the routes of such HBC explorers as Ogden, McKay, McLeod, Ermatinger, and so on.
††††† One very promising lead to the naming of Mt. Shasta and to Ogden's geography is suggested by the author's statement that "Jesse Applegate had in his possession a map drawn by Peter Skene Ogden which proved to be quite accurate whenever the party was in territory over which Ogden had traveled" (p. 2). Since J. Applegate and P. S. Ogden were friends (see Elliott 1910), it is quite reasonable that this map by Ogden existed and may still exist in some archive or attic.
††††† Parts I and II each contain photographs and maps tracing the Applegate trail. 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS684].

[MS1180].††††††††† Hooper, Frank W. Place Names and Origins: A Preview from a Book to be published by Frank W. Hooper. In: Siskiyou News. Yreka, Calif.: Mar. 12, 1943. Contains one of the best reviews of the name "Siskiyou" including derivations not located in any other source. The author states: "After intensive digging into the priceless Bancroft Library of original sources and the extensive University of California Library, with its valuable theses and other original data, the writer has found many disputes as to the origin and meaning of the names Yreka, Shasta, and Siskiyou, which will be briefly developed later."
††††† Frank Hooper quotes from many sources. Among the unusual derivations of "Siskiyou" he presents is a statement that: "The writer was told by Mrs. Phares, a pioneer of the Salmon section that the word Siskiyou is derived from the Chinook words, 'Sis' meaning 'little' and 'Cayuse' meaning 'horse,' literally 'little horse.' "
††††† Another unusual derivation, reminiscent of Harry Wells' 1889 Siskiyou theory (see Wells 1889), is quoted from May Dorin's U.C. Berkeley Master's Thesis on "Emigrant Trails into California." She wrote that: "Turner and McLeod in the journey south from the Umpqua, perhaps gave the names Rogue's River or 'Rogue' to the river because of the character of the Indians, and the name Siskiyou to the mountains in honor of an old bob-tailed horse stolen by the Indians."†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† MS1180].

[MS174].††††††††† LaLande, Jeff.† The 'Arrowsmith Map' and Early Pacific Northwest Cartography. In: LaLande, Jeff.† First Over the Siskiyous: Peter Skene Ogden's 1826-1827 Journey Through the Oregon-California Borderlands.† [Portland, Ore.]: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1987. pp. 127-129.†† Essay pertaining to the 1834 English mapmaker John Arrowsmith's "Map of British North America," which was the earliest map ever to use the name "Mt. Shasty" (or any other "Shasta" variant spelling). The term "Mt. Shasty" was used not for present-day Mount Shasta but for present-day Mt. McLoughlin. Present-day Mt. Shasta is depicted on this map but is not named. LaLande discusses how the 1826-1827 journal of Peter Skene Ogden helps explain that this map is actually representing the correct assignment of mountain names as used by the Hudson's Bay Company.††††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS174].

[MS1242].††††††††† Laut, Agnes Christiana.† †The Conquest of the Great Northwest.† New York: 1908. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #98†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42/40. Find List.† [MS1242].

[MS790].††††††††† Masson, Marcelle. Alexander Roderick McLeod: Compiled by the Hudson's Bay Company. In: The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. 1949. Vol. 1. No. 3. pp. 46-47. Submitted by Marcelle Mason. 'Minutes of Council Northern Department of Rupert Land, 1821-31. Edited by R. Harvey Flemming, B. Comm. Published by the Champlain Society for the Hudson's Bay Record Society. Pages 448-450.'†††† Alexander Roderick McLeod was born about 1782 in Dunvagen Castle, Island of Skye, Scotland. He died in 1840.
††††† Apparently these are the official minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company's files concerning the disaster of McLeod in 1830. Spellings should be checked against the original minutes, especially for the doubtful spelling of "Shasta River" The article states that: "Early in January, 1829, he once more set out to explore the Buenaventura River which was thought to flow from the west and to find an outlet in the Bay of San Francisco. His route appears to have been southward to the Umpqua country, and then by way of the lower Klamath River to Klamath Lake and Lower Klamath Lake. He continued in a southeasterly direction, and on March 26 encamped on the banks of the Pit or Upper Sacramento River. On April 6, he reached the Sacramento Valley which he at first thought was the Buenaventura Valley. The expedition then descended the east bank of the Sacramento, crossed to the west side and traveled to within about seventy miles of the Spanish Mission at Sonoma. A shortage of ammunition caused McLeod to turn his steps northward with the intention of using traps along the upper parts of the Sacramento. The expedition trapped the various streams running into the Sacramento from east and west and apparently went up the Shasta River. Whilst crossing the mountains during December, 1829, and during the following January, they were caught in heavy snowstorms and lost all their horses. The furs were put en cache and McLeod arrived back at Fort Vancouver in February, 1830" (pp. 46-47). 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS790].

[MS583].††† ††††††McArthur, Lewis Ankeny 1883-1951.† [letter to Charles L. Stewart, July 9, 1927,† Portland, Ore., opposing C. H. Merriam's interpretation that Peter Skene Ogden named present-day Mt. McLoughlin as 'Mt. Sastise'].† 1927.† 1927 letter by the original author of Oregon Geographic Names (see McArthur 1992). Letter begins: "My dear Mr. Stewart, T. C. Elliott, Esq., of Walla Walla, Washington, has informed me that you are interested in the matter of the naming of Mount Shasta. He refers to an article by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. I have not seen this article but I understand that Dr. Merriam is of the opinion that Peter Skene Ogden did not discover Mount Shasta, but that the mountain he saw and named is really Mount McLoughlin, sometimes known as Mount Pitt."
††††† This is a long and detailed letter. Mr. McArthur's main argument is that: "If he had intended to apply the name Mount Shasta to Mount McLoughlin , the[n] certainly he would have done so approximately December 1, 1826, because he would have seen it." McArthur also states that "I have been over almost every foot of the country described by Peter Skene Ogden, and I cannot for the life of me see how his journal can be made to fit the ground around Mount McLoughlin."
††††† Note that Mr. McArthur did not have access to more recent transcriptions of the Ogden's journal (see LaLande 1987).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS583].

[MS171].††††††††† McLeod, Alexander Roderick 1782 1840.† [journal, 1828, of A. R. McLeod's southward trip to the Umpqua River with Jedediah Smith]. In: Sullivan, Maurice S.† The Travels of Jedediah Smith: A Documentary Outline, Including the Journal of the Great American Pathfinder.† Santa Ana, Calif.† The Fine Arts Press, 1934. Alexander McLeod and Jedediah Smith were both important explorers of the late 1820s who have influenced the place names of the Mount Shasta region. This McLeod journal details journey from Fort Vancouver south to the Umpqua River, taking along Jedediah Smith, to recover goods and journals Smith lost in the 1828 Umpqua massacre. The Jedediah Smith and Harrison Rogers journals were recovered and have been reprinted.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS171].

[MS969].††††††††† McLeod, Alexander Roderick 1782 1840.† Journal of a Hunting Expedition to the Southward of the Umpqua under the Command of A. R. McLeod C. T. September 1826. In: Ogden, Peter Skene 1790-1854.† Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Journals 1826-27.† London: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1961. pp. 175-219.†† 'With an Introduction by Dorothy O. Johansen.'†††† Contains the statement by McLeod, while on the southern Oregon Coast, of the natives called the "Chiste etudi" (p. 203). The editor in a footnote writes "The Khustenete." (see Swanton 1984 for other 'Chiste' sounding names.)
†††††† McLeod's 1826-27 journal predates his disastrous 1830 return from California. Nonetheless, the earlier journal is very interesting, and is full of references to places and people significant to the history of southern Oregon and northern California. McLeod in 1826-27 traveled along the coast as far south as mouth of the "Toototenez" (p. 205) or present-day Rogue.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS969].

[MS4].††††††††† McLeod, Alexander Roderick 1782 1840.† [report by A. R. McLeod to John McLoughlin, dated Fort Vancouver, February 15, 1830, concerning ill-fated 1829-1830 return from a fur trade expedition to California]. In: Nunis, Doyce Blackman Jr. 1924.† The Hudson's Bay Company's First Fur Brigade to the Sacramento Valley: Alexander McLeod's 1829 Hunt.† Fair Oaks, Calif.: The Sacramento Book Collectors Club, 1968. pp. 31-43.†† Original report is in the Hudson's Bay Company Archives, D.4/123, fos. 58-65.†††† This important Feb. 15, 1830 report mentions the "Chaste Mount." On Feb. 13, 1830, after a year's fur trapping expedition Alexander McLeod returned to Fort Vancouver. In December of 1829, on the return trip from the Sacramento Valley, a severe snow storm trapped the fur brigade somewhere east of present-day Mount Shasta. McLeod's party lost nearly all of its 300 horses and was forced to cache over 2400 beaver and otter skins. In his report he tries to explain why this disaster occurred and why he had moved his fur brigade, against orders, back north from the Sacramento Valley where he was to have wintered. During the month of December 1829 McLeod and his men suffered extreme hardships while caught in the snows.
††††† McLeod uses the name "Chaste" four times in this report. He first states in general that: "Whereas by moving to the Mountains we might employ our traps in the upper parts of the river and the Chaste Country being not far remote from our back where we crossed the last high land to enter the Valley, we might pass the Stormy Weather while hunting that and the Clammetti River" (p. 37). The next uses of the name "Chaste" are associated with specific dates: 'November 26. Moved our Camp up Clear Water Creek a short distance from its junction with Pit River and about 30 miles to the last ascent to Chaste Valley. The country fine for travelling, less hurtful to horses feet, and not a third of the distance it is by the Clametti Country and out of the reach of the annoyance from the Natives" (p. 38). A few days later he says: "29th. Weather fine. The snow dissolved. Resumed our journey and ascertained the track to the base of Chaste Mount" (p. 39). In December a series of big storms trapped the group for the whole month. On the 22nd of December he says: All hopes given up of saving any of our horses...depth of Snow measured 6 feet 4 inches at our camp. The third of January the weather becoming fine the men reassumed their work, and by the sixth Instant the rest of the Furs were deposited in places prepared for the purpose and considered as Secure as we could possibly put them. They were dried and aired previously, amounting to about 2400 Beavers and Otters of a total. Having Sledges and Snowshoes ready by the 13th Inst., the 14th and 15th the party were on their way to Chaste Valley and got there on the 16th and 17th with their luggage. Found no snow....Indians not numerous and considered of a peaceful disposition having proved so to Mr. McKay and party during their stay among them Winter 1827" (p. 42).
††††† Note that the exact location of the loss of horses and furs has never been positively ascertained, nor is the location of McLeod's "Chaste Mount" and "Chaste Valley" easily identified from McLeod's descriptions. The letters of Hudson's Bay Company chief factor McLoughlin refer to the 'Sasti' Valley without giving its exact location. Maps of the early 1830s show present Mt. McLoughlin as 'Mt. Shasty,' and thus it is difficult to say conclusively what McLeod meant by "Chaste Mount." Also note that McLeod himself wrote a week later of the "Chasti Valley," which might indicate that McLeod's spelling of "Chaste" should actually have been "Chasté"(see McLeod Letter to John McLoughlin Feb. 21, 1830). Significantly, if "Chaste" is not a proper spelling it renders implausible the oft proposed idea that "Chaste" is a French word meaning 'pure.' In any event, McLeod's report is one the great Mt. Shasta region narratives from the late 1820s.
†††† Incidentally, in his report McLeod mentions J. B. P. Purreault (p. 42). Historian Harry Wells stated that the name "Siskiyou" derived from the fact that an old white bobtailed 'siskiyou' horse was stolen from 'Pairroult' during Mcleod's 1829-1830 fur brigade (see Wells History of Oregon 1889, pp. 199-200).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS4].

[MS1164].††††††††† McLoughlin, John 1784-1857.† Letter to the Governor and Committee, August 31, 1833. In: Rich, E. E. 1904.† The Letters of John McLoughlin: From Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee. First Series, 1825-38.† Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1941. pp. 110?-113.†† Introduction by William K. Lamb (1904-).†††† Letter mentions the "Sasty Mountains" as the region where Michel Laframboise first heard rumors, later found to be untrue, of Mr. Work's demise. These "Sasty Mountains" were reached in 1833 by Laframboise by following northward the ridge of the California Coast Range between Bodega Bay and the Oregon border. The exact meaning of the name 'Sasty Mountains' is not clear from this letter, but may have meant the present-day Siskiyou Mountains.
††††† Note that the use of the plural form of the name "Sasty Mountains" indicates that there were at least two uses of the name "Sasty" by the Hudson's Bay Company, one for a peak, and one for a range.† This may explain why the Wilkes-Emmons Overland Expedition 1841 journals of Dana, Eld, etc, also use the name "Sasty" both for a single peak, and for a range of mountains, though it does not seem the Wilkes-Emmons Overland expedition were talking about the same peak, or about the same range as the Hudson's Bay Company's version.
††††† Letter states: "We have no accounts of Mr. Work since he separated from M. Laframboise except that we have Indian Reports by the way of Walla Walla, that he and his party have been killed by the Indians, but we do not believe this and think they mean an American party which left St. Francisco before our people to hunt along the Coast to this place. Laframboise leaving Bodega saw their tract but as he Kept along the ridge that runs parallel to the sea to hunt the headwaters of the Streams that rise in this ridge, he heared nothing of them till he came to the vicinity of the Sasty Mountains, where he heared that this American party had been all Killed along the Coast in the vicinity of McLeods River, and which I am afraid may be unfortunately the case..." Note that the McLeod's River was the Rogue or Klamath, not the McCleod River later named the McCloud, and note that in a footnote we learn that the 1832 American Party was a group of seven American and Englishmen, and not the Jedediah Smith group of 1828.
†††† The entire letter contains information about the 1832-1833 treks of both Michel Laframboise and John Work.
††††† This volume also contains a letter McLoughlin wrote on Oct. 11, 1830 to the Governor and Committee which mentions Alexander McLeod had visited the "Sasti Vally" (pp.83-88?)†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1164].

[MS653].††††††††† McLoughlin, John 1784-1857.† [letter to Hudson Bay Company's Deputy Governor & Committee, dated July 23, 1830, Fort Vancouver, mentioning 'McLeod's route']. In: Barker, Burt Brown.† Letters of Dr. John McLoughlin.† Portland, Ore.: Binfords and Mort, 1948. p. 119.†† This letter of July 23, 1830 was written by Chief Factor Dr. John McLoughlin to the Hudson's Bay Company's Deputy Governor & Committee. The letter contains two paragraphs outlining how Peter Skene Ogden had just returned on the 6th of July from a California trip which returned to Oregon following "McLeod's route" [possibly the 1829-30 southward track of McLeod down Canoe Creek to the Sacramento]. This route took Ogden to Ogden's old 1826/7† hunting/wintering grounds, presumably the Klamath Lake region. The paragraphs lack route details, but the mention of the 1826/7 wintering grounds of Ogden underscores the fact that even the later travels and journals of Ogden might offer clues to the location of Ogden's original "Mt. Sastise," first named by him in 1827. Furthermore, the mention of McLeod's route might offer clues to the location of McLeod's 1830 disaster near "Chaste Mount" and "Chaste Valley."
††††† McLoughlin writes: "leaving Walla Wala last Fall Mr. Ogden proceeded to Ogden's River and from thence on up the Country to Rio Callarado descended it to nigh where it empties into the Gulph of Callifornia turned then North fk on South Branche of the Bonaventura following Mr. McLeod's route till he came to the country he hunted wintered 1826/7 and then bent his course to Walla Wala" (p. 119).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS653].

[MS652].††††††††† McLoughlin, John 1784-1857.† [letter to the Hudson Bay Company's governing council, dated February 24, 1830, Fort Vancouver, mentioning Alexander McLeod and the 'Sasity Valley']. In: Barker, Burt Brown.† Letters of Dr. John McLoughlin.† Portland, Ore.: Binfords and Mort, 1948. pp. 75-76.†† [This letter is also reprinted in Nunis 1968, p. 17.]†††† This letter of Feb. 24, 1830 was written by Chief Factor Dr. John McLoughlin to the Hudson's Bay Company's governing council. McLoughlin also sent a copy of the letter to Alexander McLeod. The letter explains the tragic loss during a snow storm of nearly 300 horses and 2400 furs by the fur trade expedition of McLeod in 1830. The disaster took place somewhere east of present-day Mt. Shasta. The letter is short and is quoted in full below. Note that the "Sasity Valley" is mentioned, but that the location of this valley is not specified.
††††† "I am sorry to inform you that Mr. Chief Trader [A.R.] McLeod arrived here on the 13th inst with the disastrous intelligence that this party had lost all their horses in Crossing from the Bonnaventura River which we now Know to be the Pit River discovered by Mr. Ogden in 1826/27 and after the Correspondence I have had with him on the Subject of the Expedition and which I forward you with this report see Letter and Letter Book."
††††† "I have only to add that instead of Coming back as Mr. McLeod did he ought in my opinion to have passed the Winter in the Valley and in the Spring crossed to the Sea and come here by the Coast hunting the little Rivers as he came and to have hunted that part of the country while he was there and left the Sasity Valley to be hunted after he had cleared the more remote places. Allowing he had lost three or four of his men which I do not think would have occurred, the hunt of the remainder from that part of the Country would have amply repaid us, and to say that the want of ammunition was one of the Causes of his Return evinces in my opinion a want of management on his part as he was allowed to take the quantity he wished from this place and when he found he was getting short he ought at least to have made an attempt to get a Supply from the people he saw especially as this is the second time Mr. McLeod fails in managing this Expedition."
††††† The mention that the "Sasity Valley" is not as remote as other places could mean that this valley was perhaps the Rogue River Valley.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS652].

[MS655].††††††††† McLoughlin, John 1784-1857.† [letter dated Oct. 11, 1830 mentioning McLeod visited 'Sasti Valley' in July of 1830]. In: Nunis, Doyce Blackman Jr. 1924.† The Hudson's Bay Company's First Fur Brigade to the Sacramento Valley: Alexander McLeod's 1829 Hunt.† Sacramento, Calif.: Sacramento Book Collectors Club, 1968. pp. 18-19.†† [Letter is reprinted in full in: E. E. Rich ed. The Letters of John McLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee, First Series, 1825-38 1941, pp. 83-88]†††† Alexander McLeod returned to Fort Vancouver from his disasterous fur brigade of 1829-1830 and was promptly sent away by McLoughlin while investigations were conducted. Nunis quotes from several McLoughlin letters, including a quote from an Oct. 11, 1830 letter which mentions "Sasti Valley." Nunis states that "While awaiting word on the disposition of the charges leveled against him and action on his request for a personal appearance before the Council at York Factory, McLeod bided his time. No doubt in despondency, he continued to serve in the field. McLoughlin ordered him on March 10 to 'proceed and join the party you left and hunt between that [Umpqua] and this place till the latter end of July...' He was to report back to Fort Vancouver at that time. In the meantime McLoughlin forwarded McLeod's request to Governor Simpson. True to the letter of his orders, McLeod rejoined his party in their winter encampment in southwestern Oregon. Come July 28 he arrived at headquarters to report that on his way there 'he visited Sasti [Shasta] Valley but found few beaver..." (pp.18-19).
††††† It may be that McLeod considered the "Sasti Valley" to be one and the same as present-day Shasta Valley, though it seems just as likely that McLeod was referring to the present Rogue Valley, which would have been closer to the Umpqua wintering grounds. In any event, this 1830 letter by McLoughlin is one of only a handful of early fur trade documents to use the term "Shasta" in any spelling whatsoever.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS655].

[MS1141].††††††††† Meek, Stephen Hall 1805-1889.† The Autobiography of a Mountain Man 1805-1889.† Pasadena, Calif.: Glen Dawson, 1948. Reprint. New introduction and notes by Arthur Woodward. First published as 'A Sketch of the Life of the First Pioneer' in 'The Golden Era' April, 1885.†††† Stephen Hall Meek, who lived out the last years of his life in Siskiyou County, was one of the earliest explorers of the Mt. Shasta region. His use of the name "McLeod," for the present McCloud River, is noteworthy in that Meek was a former employee of the Hudson's Bay Company and in a position to know the proper name of the river. He says that: "In the spring of 1835 I started for the Willamette valley, and when I reached Walla Walla engaged to the Hudson Bay Co., staying until the spring of 1836 at Vancouver. That spring I went with a party of men under the celebrated Tom McKay to California, trapping the Scott river and the Sacramento. We went to Yerba Buena (San Francisco) and left our furs with the agent of the company, Mr. Ray, and returned, trapping on the American, Yuba, Feather, Pit, McLeod and Shasta rivers, and then to Vancouver" (p. 6).
††††† Meek passed through the Mount Shasta region many times over the course of 50 years. At one point, for example, he says: "In the spring of 1843, I piloted a few of those who had become dissatisfied with Oregon, to California, over the Old Hudson Bay trail, meeting Capt. Joe Walker and others in Rogue River Valley, with two thousand head of cattle, coming from California. I went to Sutter's fort and Monterey, where I spent the winter" (p. 8). In the spring of 1851 Meek says that he "...started for Scott river, but stopped at Yreka and mined till october, when I returned with $6,000." By 1871 Meek's fortunes had taken a turn for the worse, and he says: "Being now advanced in years and having lost all the money my good fortune and hard labor had brought to me, I was compelled to take to the mountains to secure a livlihood. I went to Red Bluff, bought animals and traps and have ever since been trapping the waters of Sacramento, Pit, McLeod, Scott, Trinity and other rivers of northern California. I make the house of Josiah Doll, In Scott Valley, my headquarters, and from there range through the mountains with my son George, or as guide to hunting parties" (p. 11).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1141].

[MS651].††††††††† Nunis, Doyce Blackman Jr. 1924.† The Hudson's Bay Company's First Fur Brigade to the Sacramento Valley: Alexander McLeod's 1829 Hunt.† Fair Oaks, Calif.: The Sacramento Book Collectors Club, 1968.†††††† In January of 1830 a severe snow storm trapped the fur brigade of Alexander McLeod somewhere east of present-day Mount Shasta. McLeod's party lost all of its approximately 300 horses and was forced to cache over 2400 beaver and otter skins collected during nearly a year's travel. The full text of McLeod's February 15, 1830 report to his superior John McLoughlin is reprinted in this book.
††††† An introduction by Nunis provides a wealth of background to McLeod's disaster, one of the Mount Shasta region's earliest documented events. The "Chaste Valley" (p. 42) and the actual location of the cached furs as mentioned in McLeod's report have never been definitively determined. Nunis also includes excerpts of letters including one written by McLeod referring to the location of the "Sasti Valley" (p. 19) and another letter by Hudson's Bay Company Chief Factor, John McLoughlin, refering to the "Sasity Valley" (p. 17).
††††† The present book is also an excellent source of information for those researching the naming of the McCloud [McLeod] River, probably the same river ascended by McLeod's party in 1830.
††††† Also, those researchers interested in the life of the American fur trapper Jedediah Smith will find that Nunis has also included several pages devoted to the role McLeod played in leading an 1828 expedition to take Smith back to the Umpqua River. That expedition, with Smith along, was sent by McLoughlin to recapture furs, horses, and possessions lost by Smith during a notorious 1828 massacre of Smith's men by Indians near the banks of the Umpqua River in Southern Oregon.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS651].

[MS529].††††††††† Ogden, Peter Skene 1790-1854.† Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country Journals 1826-27.† London: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1961. pp. 1-134.†† 'With an Introduction by Dorothy O. Johansen.'†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS529].

[MS661].††††††††† Ogden, Peter Skene 1790-1854.† Traits of American Indian Life & Character: By a Fur Trader.† New York: AMS Press, 1972. Reprint of the 1933 Grabhorn Press edition. Original book was published in London in 1853 by Smith, Elder and Co.†††† Ogden is credited with the first naming of Mt. Shasta as 'Mt. Sastise' in 1827 (see LaLande 1987). Although for decades there has been debate over what mountain he actually named, there is general agreement that he was one of the most significant early explorers of the region west of the Rocky Mountains. The present book is his autobiography. The book was published anonymously in 1853, but the narrative contains several definite clues that it was Ogden who wrote the book. The book was probably written at least in part by 1838, for Ogden writes "Six years ago, being the spring of 1832..." (p. 28).
††††† Only a portion of the book relates directly to northern California, and the 1827 visit to the Siskiyou mountains is not mentioned. But the first chapter does contain an interesting account of Ogden's 1829 California expedition. Ogden writes: "In 1829 I was appointed to explore the tract lying south of the Columbia, between that river and California. For five years previously I had been similarly employed to the eastward of that tract...It was in the month of September that I bade adieu to the shores of the Columbia River, with a party composed of thirty men, well appointed, to overcome the obstacles and encounter the perils which long experience had taught me to anticipate....Difficulties, many and greater than I had anticipated, began to crowd upon us; and though, by perseverance, we were enabled to surmount them, our sufferings and trials were truly great. There were times when we tasted no food, and were unable to discover water for several days together; without wood, we keenly felt the cold; wanting grass, our horses were reduced to great weakness, so that many of them died, on whose emaciated carcasses we were constrained to satisfy the intolerable cravings of our hunger, and as a last resource, to quench our thirst with their blood. Such are the privations and miseries to which Indian traders are subject in the prosecution of their precarious vocation" (pp. 2-3).
††††† Note also that Ogden's autobiography contains what is perhaps the best existing account of the Jedediah Smith Umpqua River massacre of 1828. Ogden, who was a friend of Smith, quotes extensively, from an unspecified source, of Smith's own story of the events of that disaster (pp. 6-9).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS661].

[MS1048].††††††††† Reading, Pierson B.† Sacramento River Above Sac'to City and Its Tributaries by Pierson B. Reading from Actual Observations 1849 [map]. In: Boggs, Mae Helene Bacon 1863.† My Playhouse was a Concord Coach: An Anthology of Newspaper Clippings and Documents Relating to Those Who Made California History During the Years 1822-1888.† Oakland, Calif.: Howell-North Press, 1942. Facing p. 25.†† Map shows the location of "McLouds camp," presumably the 1829-30 camp of Alexander Roderick McCleod where, according to one story (see Gibbs 1863) 300 horses including a bob-tailed "Siskiyou" race horse perished in winter snows. This map represents the only known early map depicting the possible camp site. P. B. Reading knew these mountains well, and his map is invaluable for that reason.
††††† Important hand-drawn map by the most famous of early northern California pioneers. Note that the map shows how Reading used the names "Sasty or Snowy Butes" as the name for present-day Mt. Shasta, thus underscoring the opinion that it was not until 1850 that the spelling of "Shasta," with an "-a" ending, was ever applied to the mountain formerly most commonly spelled "Shasty," "Sasty," "Sasté," etc.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1048].

[MS721].††††††††† Ruggles, Richard I.† A Country So Interesting: The Hudson's Bay Company and Two Centuries of Mapping 1670-1870.† Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1991. Contains information about a missing 1827 manuscript map by Peter Skene Ogden showing the geography of southern Oregon and northern California from the very journey on which Ogden named "Mt. Sastise" and the "Sasty" river. This map would be of value in answering historical questions about the location of Ogden's original "Mt. Sastise," the "Sasty River," and Ogden's 1826-1827 route details. It would be of great interest to find Ogden's original map.
†††† The map has never been found. The author states that "In the third journey, in 1826-7, he attained the goal of a previous expedition, namely, Klamath Lake in southern Oregon. The exact path cannot be traced because Ogden's map of the trip cannot be found, even though it was received in London and catalogued (113c)" (p. 89).
††††† Even if the above map some day comes to light, it may be less useful than anticipated, for the author writes: "Unfortunately, Ogden's cartographic ability did not match his geographical interest or general observational skills. He was not driven, as Peter Fidler had been, to measure all the nuances of course changes, or to observe locations exactly" (p. 88).
††††† Many other maps and map-makers are mentioned in the text. Noteworthy is an extant map by A. R. McLeod from an 1826 expedition as far south as the Rogue River.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS721].

[MS1055].††††††††† Scholfield, Socrates. The Klamath Exploring Expedition, 1850: The Settlement of the Umpqua Valley—Its Outcome. Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. Dec., 1916. Vol. 17. No. 4. pp. 341-357. Provides a possible lead to a better understanding of the nomenclature of the "Siskiyou" mountains. A group of San Francisco gold explorers in 1850 journeyed up the Umpqua river in southern Oregon. At Fort Umpqua, "...they found Mr. Gagnier, agent for the Hudson's Bay Company, who, with his Indian wife and family, lived in the fort. Mr. Gagnier was a French Canadian, and had been in the employ of the company at this fort for more than twenty years" (p. 356).
††††† J. R. Snyder contended in 1852 (see Snyder 1852) that the "Six Stone Ford" was on the Umpqua River. Mr. Gagnier, if he left papers which have survived to today, would be a likely source of corroboration on this matter. Gagnier was also a host to several members of the Wilkes-Emmons expedition of 1841. 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1055].

[MS937].††††††††† Shaw, George Coombs 1877.† The Chinook Jargon and How to Use It: A Complete and Exhaustive Lexicon of the Oldest Trade Language of the American Continent.† Seattle, Wash.: Rainier Printing Company, 1909. p. 22, 26.†† Contains material from other authors relevant to the name "Siskiyou."
††††† Alexander Francis Chamberlain writes: " 'Siskiyou' - Though this word is assigned a Cree origin by Mr. Gibbs, its etymology is very uncertain. Blackfoot 'sakhisiu' = short and Cree kiskikkuttew = he cuts in two, offer themselves for comparison, but with no certainty. (p. 26). Also, 'Siskiyou' was not heard [in Western British Columbia and is probably obsolescent" (p. 26).
††††† Shaw writes that: "Tshis-ki-yu = sky, is given by Tolmie and Dawson in Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia" ( p. 26).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS937].

[MS380].††††††††† Simpson, George 1792-1860.† Narrative of a Journey Round the World During the Years 1841 and 1842 by Sir George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company's Territories in North America.† London: Henry Colburn, Publisher, 1847. First edition? Also reprinted in 1930 by Thomas C. Russell in San Francisco. The 1930 edition again reprinted in 1968 by Ye Galleon Press edition.†††† This is an important work for it helps clarify where Alexander McLeod lost his horses and furs in 1830. Sir George Simpson was the Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company's Territories in North America. In the following passage he refers to trapper Ermatinger crossing southward in 1841 or 1842 by way of the "Pit Mountain." "Pit Mountain" is generally agreed to have meant either present-day Mount Shasta and/or the mountains east of Mt. Shasta (see Hood map 1838). Simpson also refers to the nearly three hundred horses lost by his trappers about ten years before near this "Pit Mountain" which is a reference to the ill-fated McLeod expedition's return in 1830.
††††† Simpson writes: "After tracing the Willamette to its sources, Mr. Ermatinger had crossed the height of land into the valley of the Calamet River, thence making his way to the snowy chain which terminates in Cape Mendicino. The latter portion of this same route ran through the country which had been the scene of the cowardly atrocities of some Americans; but, though the Indians did, for a time, make the Company's innocent servants pay the penalty of the guilt of others, yet, through the influence of kindness and firmness combined, they have, within the last two years, permitted our people to pass unmolested. Mr. Ermatinger then crossed the snowy chain aforesaid by the Pit Mountain, so called from the number of pitfalls dug there by the neighboring savages for the wild animals, and here, partly in consequence of the lateness of season, he and his men had to march for three days through the snow, which in some places was two feet deep. In fact, this mountain was notorious as the worst part of their journey, for, about ten years before, our trappers, being overtaken by a violent storm, had lost on this very ground the whole of their furs and nearly three hundred horses" (pp. 350-351).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS380].

[MS1195].††††††††† Simpson, George 1792-1860.† Simpson's Character Book. In: Williams, Glyndwr.† Hudson's Bay Miscellany.† Winnipeg: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1975. pp. 190-191.†† The Governor of the North American operations of the Hudson's Bay Company, Sir George Simpson, kept notes on his employees. Alexander Roderick McLeod, who is, incidentally, the namesake of Mount Shasta's McCloud River, and whose name is often associated with the origins of the naming of the Siskiyou mountains, is described as follows: "About 50 years of Age. Has been a stout strong active Man, a good pedestrian, an excellent shot, a skilful Canoe Man, and a tolerably good Indian Trader, but illiterate self sufficient and arrogant; does not confine himself to plain matter of fact, annoys every one near him with the details of his own exploits; 'I did this' 'I did that and I did the other thing' continually in his mouth, but it unfortunately happens that he rarely does anything well.† Even his physical powers have been† greatly over-rated and I have never been able to discover that he possesses beyond the most ordinary mental abilities: yet his own vanity and the partiality of Friends have made him an aspirant to a place in the 1st Class to which in my opinion he has very moderate pretensions as regards merit and if he did succeed in gaining that stand he would be a most overbearing Tyrannical fellow, is capable of little mean tricks and I suspect is fond of a Glass of Grog in private. Would have made an excellent Guide altho' he adds little respectability to the 'Fur Trade' as a Partner."†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1195].

[MS1046].††††††††† Snyder, J. R.† [Siskiyou, derivation of the name]. In: Journal of the Third Session of the Legislature of the State of California, Begun on the 5th Day of January, 1852, and Ended on the 4th Day of May, 1852, at the Cities of Vallejo and Sacramento.† San Francisco, Calif.: G. K. Fitch and Co., and V. E. Geiger and Co., State Printers, 1852. Earliest known example of the "Six Stones Ford" origin to the name "Siskiyou." The Journal states that Mr. Snyder submitted the following statement, which was ordered upon the Journal: "Inasmuch as there is no explanation of the derivation of the word Siskiyou, which has been applied to a new County in this State, I beg leave to offer the following explanation, which I hope will be placed on the Journals of the Senate:--The French name Six Cailloux was given a ford on the Umpqua river, at which place Michael La Frambois, with a party of Hudson Bay trappers, crossed in the year 1832. Six large stones lay in the river where they crossed, and they gave it the name of Six Cailloux, or Six Stone Ford; and from this, the mountain took its name--Six Stone Mountain. I have seen the Map of La Frambois' of the country through which he passed during the expedition."†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1046].

[MS807].††††††††† Spaulding, Captain. [report, 1842, mentioning the Chester Valley Indians]. In: United States House of Representatives Report 830, 27th Congress, 2nd Session, 59, 1842. 1843? Source: Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North Of Mexico, Part 2. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1910†††† The Chester Valley of Spaulding is one and the same as the Sasty Valley Indians according to Dr. John McLoughlin in his letter dated Nov. 15, 1843 (see E. E. Rich The Letters of John McLoughlin..., Second Series, 1839-44. n.p.: The Champlain Society for The Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1943). 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42/40. Find List.† [MS807].

[MS1213].††††††††† Spier, Leslie. Tribal Distribution In Southwestern Oregon. In : Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. Dec. 1927. Vol. 28. No. 4. pp. 358-365. Seen in typescript copy only.†††† Spier writes in part: "Merriam's recent attempt to show that the name Shasta was given the Rogue River by Ogden in 1827 confirms this by implication. He further cites Framboise's list of tribes of 1835 which places the Shasta Indians on the river of that name west of the Klamath people. I have no intention of entering the controversy but by my reading of Ogden's journal, like Elliott's, Ogden's Shasta River is the Pitt. If my identification is correct, Framboise cannot have meant that the Shasta tribe was located on the Rogue, merely that they lay in a westerly direction from the Klamath people." Footnotes have been omitted from the above. One footnote states that "I do not see how Ogden could have failed to note his crossing of the Cascades when he is so explicit as to every other identifiable range no matter how insignificant. My identification of his route is consistent with a journey into the Pit River country and a return without having crossed to the northern side of Klamath River." Note that the author did not at the time, 1927, have access to a more accurate transcription of the Ogden Journal (see LaLande 1987). 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1213].

[MS938].††††††††† Tolmie, William Fraser 1812-1886 and Dawson, George Mercer 1819-1901.† Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia, with a Map Illustrating Distribution.† Montreal: Dawson Brothers, 1884. 'Published by Authority of the Parliament.'†††† Records that "Tshis-ki-yu" means "sky" in the Aht language of the Kailookwaht tribe on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (p. 52, p. 120). Note the similarity of this name to the name "Siskiyou," though the authors make no such inference that "Tshish-ki-yu" is the origin of the word "Siskiyou."
††††† These Pacific Northwest vocabularies were collected in Victoria, B. C.† during the winter of 1875-1876. Dr. Tolmie, who graduated in 1832 as a medical doctor from the University of Glascow, was "...almost continuously since 1833, resident in British Columbia, for much of this time connected with the Hudson's Bay Company, and throughout in constant communication with the Indians of all the tribes (pp. 6-7).
††††† Note that Dr. Tolmie mentions that in 1839 he sent seventeen Indian vocabularies, including one of the Umpqua tribe, to Dr. Scouler of the Andersonian University, Glascow (p. 12). The Umpqua vocabulary, if ever located could possibly hold clues to the name "Chastacosta" and/or" Siskiyou."
††††† Note also that the author mentions that some of the Pacific Northwest tribes had no native word for horse. If that were also true for the northern California-southern Oregon region then one could understand how a name like 'Siskiyou," a Cree Indian word meaning "bob-tailed race horse," according to Hudson Bay officer A. C. Anderson (see Gibbs Dictionary of Chinook Jargon 1863) could have been imported into the local Indian vocabulary since no local equivalent for "horse" would have been available.
††††† Dr. Tolmie indirectly indicates the existence of horse racing and Indian trade routes through the Siskiyous by stating: "Also on the Mooleilis River near by, a small tribe of that name ranged, said to have linguistic and other affinity with the Klamath or Thlamath of the south, who with trading and horse-racing objects in view used to visit them occasionally (p. 11).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS938].

[MS779].††††††††† Wales, Joseph H. The name 'Siskiyou'. In: The Siskiyou Pioneer in Folklore, Fact and Fiction and Yearbook. Siskiyou County Historical Society. Aug., 1948. pp. 42-43. States that there are three commonly accepted theories regarding the origin of the name "Siskiyou." The three theories are the "bob-tailed horse" theory (see Gibbs 1863), the "council ground" theory (see Wells 1881), and the "Six Cailloux = six rocks" theory . For the third theory, however, the author adds a new twist to the translation of 'Six Cailloux.' Generally speaking, historians have translated the words 'Six Cailloux" as French for "six rocks." But the author in what is perhaps an original interpretation states that "Six Calleuse is a corruption of the French Calleuse which means six hard spots or callouses."
†††† The author supposes that the six hard places were on the Klamath River. He devotes several paragraphs to the possible location of two crossing sites, namely near the mouth of Willow Creek and near the mouth of Cottonwood Creek. Note that the earliest references to the "Six Cailloux" refer to the Umpqua River and not to the Klamath River (see McGroaty 1911). 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS779].

[MS899].††††††††† [Walling, A. G. publisher.† History of Southern Oregon, Comprising Jackson, Josephine, Douglas, Curry and Coos Counties, Compiled from the Most Authentic Sources.† Portland, Ore.: Walling, A. G., 1884. pp. 118-121.†† No author given.†††† Contains a reference to Alexander Roderick McLeod's ill-fated fur trade expedition of 1830. The author states that: "They lost their horses and were in a sad plight. Joe McLoughlin, son of the chief factor, set out on foot with a companion to procure aid from Vancouver, and reached that place after much hardship and privation. McLeod did not wait, however, but cached his furs, which were extremly valuable, and struggled through to Vancouver with the remainder of his men. Another party was then dispatched to recover the peltries, but found them spoiled. The stream which witnessed his misfortune was ever afterwards called McLeod (now improperly spelled McCloud) by his companion trappers" (p.122). (See also: Wells Popular History of Oregon 1889).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS899].

[MS947].††††††††† Warner, Juan Jose 1807-1895. Reminiscences of Early California from 1831 to 1846. In: Annual Publications of the Historical Society of Southern California. 1907-1908. Vol. 7. pp. 176-193. This published article is said to be somewhat different from the Warner manuscript of the same title. It is not entirely clear if Warner was with Ewing Young in 1833 or not. If he was, Warner could give first hand information about the McLeod disaster camp where 300 horses perished in 1832 somewhere east of Mt. Shasta. Warner, J[uan] J[ose] (1807-1895) was born Jonathan Trumbull Warner. After an early life as a fur trader he settled in California and became one of the most famous Americans living in Mexican-governed California. He was the owner of southern California's famous Warner Ranch. 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42/40. Find List.† [MS947].

[MS948].†††††† †††Warner, Juan Jose 1807-1895.† Reminiscences of Early California (manuscript).† no date. Source of Citation: Hill 1923, p. 28.†††† Unpublished manuscript in the collection of the Bancroft Library. May contain information of the location of Alexander McLeod's 1830 disaster camp passed through by Ewing Young in 1833.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42/40. Find List.† [MS948].

[MS624].††††††††† Wells, Harry Laurenz 1854-1940.† A Popular History of Oregon from the Discovery of America to the Admission of the State into the Union.† Portland, Ore.: 1899. pp. 199-200.†† Contains important and unique information on the origin of the name "Siskiyou." Harry Wells, author of the 1881 Siskiyou County History, in which he defined "Siskiyou" as the name for a particular Indian Council Ground, has in this 1889 book redefined the origin of the name "Siskiyou." Describing the 1829-1830 fur trapping expedition of Alexander Roderick McLeod, Wells writes: "On their journey southward they bestowed several of the familiar names of Southern Oregon, such as 'Jump-off-Joe,' 'Rogue River,' and 'Siskiyou Mountain.' The first was so named because of an adventure which happened to Joe McLoughlin, son of the Chief Factor. The second was called 'La Rivier de Caqucain,' because the Indians stole some of the traps and horses, and gave them much trouble. The last received its title because an old white, bobtailed horse, belonging to Jean Baptiste Pairroult, was stolen while they were camped on the mountain, 'Siskiyou' meaning 'bobtail' in the patois French of the Canadian trappers. McLeod's party met with considerable success; but they were snowed in, early in the winter, on the banks of a tributary of the Sacramento, lost their horses, and were unable to get out of the mountains with the large packs of furs and traps. In this emergency, McKay, McLoughlin and Pairroult started on foot for Vancouver, to procure horses, and after much hardship and suffering reached headquarters. McLeod, however, unable to procure food for his men, did not wait for the expected relief, but cached his furs and traps, and made his toilsome way to Vancouver. His cache was made near the eastern base of Mount Shasta, which they called 'Mt. McLoughlin.' When the relief party arrived at the deserted camp, the following spring, it was found that the snow and rains had caused the river to flood its banks, and the furs had become wet and spoiled. The stream was ever afterwards known among trappers as the 'McLeod River,' the name it still bears in pronunciation, though the orthography has been changed to 'McCloud.' The reason for this is, that in sound the two names are very similar, and that Ross McCloud, a very worthy and well-known gentleman, resided on the stream in an early day, though not for a quarter of a century after it received its baptism of 'McLeod.' Care should be taken by all map makers, historians, and writers generally, to adhere to the original orthography" (pp. 199-200).
††††† A story that the name "Siskiyou" meant a "bob-tailed horse" which died at a place later named "Pass of the Siskiyous" has been in print at least from 1863 (see Gibbs 1863). But Wells has added the details of "old white," and "stolen from Jean Baptiste Pairroult." Perhaps Wells had access to records and/or informants unavailable previously. There is no necessary contradiction with Wells' earlier theory of a council ground origin to the name Siskiyou, for the campsite of the stolen Siskiyou may easily have been a council ground site as well. Note that there are other plausible origins to the name "Siskiyou" besides those given by Wells.
††††† The name of Jean Baptist Pairroult appears as "J. B. P. Purreault" in the 1830 journal of Alexander Roderick McLeod (see Nunis 1968, p. 42).
††††† Note that the Wells statement that '...Mount Shasta, which they called Mt. McLoughlin' may be a misunderstanding on the part of Wells. It is more likely, based on maps and documents from the 1830s and '40s, that it was the Hudson's Bay Company's 'Mt. Shasty' which is called today Mt. McLoughlin (see LaLande 1987).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS624].

[MS1094].††††††††† Wells, Harry Laurenz 1854-1940.† The Great Fur Companies and Their Trapping Expeditions to California. In: Faris and Smith.† History of Plumas, Lassen and Sierra Counties California 1882 and Biographical Sketches of Their Prominent Men and Pioneers.† Berkeley, Calif.: Howell-North Books, 1971. pp. 94-101.†† First published in 1882. 1971 Reprint, with new introduction by W. H. Hutchinson.†††† Consists of a reordering of passages from Harry Wells's 1881 History of Siskiyou County (see Wells 1881, pp. 18-20, 54).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS1094].

[MS3].††††††††† Work, John 1792-1861.† Fur Brigade to the Bonaventura: John Work's California Expedition 1832-1833 for the Hudson's Bay Company.† San Francisco, Calif.: California Historical Society, 1945. Reprinted from California Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 2, 3, 4 and Vol. 23, No. 1 and 2.†††† The Hudson's Bay Company journal of John Work's 1832-33 fur brigade to California, written by Work himself, adds considerable factual detail to several local Mt. Shasta historical legends, including the legends of the origin of the name "Siskiyous", of the lost site of the McLeod 1830 disaster, and of the early use of Sheep rock as a landmark. In addition Work often refers to the fever, actually malaria, which debilitated many his group from the very start of their journey from Fort Vancouver in 1832 to their return in 1833. According to the editor's introduction, the route of this expedition began at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River, ascended that river to Walla Walla, went south to Malheur Lake in Central Oregon, then southwest to the Albert Rim, and on to the Klamath lakes region, to Goose Lake in California, and thence south to the Pit River, down Hat Creek to Cow Creek and on into the Sacramento Valley. The return trip, which is of more interest to the history of Mt. Shasta, is described by the editor as follows: "In the main, Work retraced his trail until he reached the confluence of Hat Creek and Pit River. From that point he took another well-used road across the headwaters of McLoud River, passing to the northeast of Mount Shasta to reach an old campsite at Sheep Rock in what is now Siskiyou County. The trail from Sheep Rock lead almost directly north to the Klamath River, which Work called the 'Sorty,' 'Sosty,' or 'Sasty'" (p. xix). Note that although the editor's description of Work's return route is probably accurate, documentation exists to question the interpretation,† e.g.,† that the Sasty River was consistently referred by other Hudson's Bay Company officers as one and the same as or at least a tributary of, the present-day Rogue River in Southern Oregon (see LaLande 1987). Nonetheless it is assumed by the editor that Work actually crossed over the northeast base of Mt. Shasta to present-day Sheep Rock.
††††† Work, describing his return journey of 1833, indicates where Alexander Roderick McLeod's 300 horses perished east of Mt. Shasta in the disaster of 1830: "Wednesday 4 [Sept.]. Weather the same.--Pursued our route to where Mr. McLeod's horses died" (p. 76). Thus Work gives one important nearly contemporary piece of evidence pointing to the general area where McLeod's camp could have been. Adding up the mileage estimates of Work, it would appear that McLeod's camp had been some 30 miles north of the Pit river. Work uses the name "Pit River" on the 31st of August (p. 75), mentions McLeod's camp on Sept. 4, and on Sept. 7 says that: "Stormy blustery weather.--Continued our journey and crossed the mountain to the Sheep rock" (p. 76). The description of "crossed the mountain to Sheep rock" seems to match present-day Mount Shasta and present-day Sheep Rock, which would thus have put McLeod's camp somewhere south and probably east of Mt. Shasta. Curiously, in a footnote, the editor states that the Sheep Rock campsite was used as early as 1825 by the Hudson Bay Company trappers (p. 96). As far as is known the first sighting of Mt. Shasta was not before Dec., 1826 (see Lalande 1987).
††††† Note the size of Work's party. He wrote in his journal: "Twenty-eight men, twenty-two women, forty-four children and six indians, in all one hundred,..." (p. 99). The descriptions of the route to Sheep Rock† mention of the difficulties including the death of many horses and illness of the trappers: "Four horses were lost at the encampment in the morning and seven more on the road across the mountain. The greater part of the people are so ill that it is impossible for them to take care of the horses indeed they can scarcely take care of themselves. Our whole party is now become exceedingly helpless.-....I tremble regularly every night myself, and am becoming weaker daily-" pp. 76-77. The group was apparently suffering from malaria, brought to Fort Vancouver from Hawaii in 1830, and which soon decimated the Indian population in the Pacific Northwest and California (see Cook 1955). That Work's horses died was due to a lack of food and probably not to the malaria.
†††††† Work refers to a "Caiause" Indian dying on August 25, 1832, somewhere north of the Sacramento Valley between the Canoe and Pit Rivers: "An Old Caiause Indian called the Berdach who accompanied us, and was taken ill a considerable time ago died, he stopped on the way coming to the encampment, and some men were sent to bring him up, but he died shortly after they reached him, he is an aged man and lost all heart shortly after he was taken ill and refused any sustenance, and could not resist. He anticipated dying some days and had disposed of his property" (p. 73).
††††† Work's journal may be the first time in writing that the word "Caiause" has been associated to Hudson's Bay Company events taking place in the Mount Shasta region. Thus it may be an eventual key clue to understanding the derivation of the name 'Siskiyou.'†
††††† Contains four appendices:† a bibliography of Work's numerous manuscripts; a biographical section on the members of Work's California Expedition; a biographical section on the trapping party of Michel Laframboise whose group teamed up at one point with Work's party; and a letter written by Work in 1834 in which he outlines the travels of
†††††† Contains important footnotes including a detailed note about John Turner, the American fur trapper who was with the Laframboise trapping party when Work's party joined them in 1833 (p. 105). Turner was a member of the important fur trapping expeditions of Jedediah Smith in 1828, of Laframboise in 1828-29 and 1832-3, of Ewing Young in 1833 and 1837. The editor documents that Turner died in 1847. Another footnote identifies J. Boileau as a member of the Laframboise trapping party who later acted as a guide for the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition (p. 104).†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS3].

[MS2028].††††††††† Work, John 1792-1861.† The Snake Country Expedition of 1830-1831: John Work's Field Journal.† Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. xxvii, 172 p.,illus., map, ports., 22 cm.†† American exploration and travel series,v. 59. Bibliography: p. 158-163. Appendix A: The personnel of Work's brigade includes biographical sketches which note their service on other expeditions as well. Several of Work's men accompanied Alexander Roderick McLeod and Peter Skene Ogden, as well as John Work's fur brigade to the Bonaventura in 1832-33.†††† 07. Early Exploration: British Hudson's Bay Company, 1826-42.† [MS2028].


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