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Chapter 8

Early Exploration: American Trade & Migration, 1828-49

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Jedediah Strong Smith, Ewing Young, Hall J. Kelley, Philip Leget Edwards, James Clyman, Lansford Hastings, Jesse Applegate, Jesse Quinn Thornton, and many other American explorers and settlers made their way through the Mt. Shasta Region between 1828 and 1849. Through their influence the names of "Snowy Bute," "Mt. Simpson," "Mt. Jackson," among others, became some of the earliest Euro-American names for present-day Mt. Shasta. The entries in this section document the migration of civilian Americans through the Mt. Shasta region of Cailfornia. See also Section 9. Early Exploration: American Government Expeditions, 1841-1860 for information on U. S. Government expeditions into the Mt. Shasta region.

The [MS number] indicates the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers
used by the College of the Siskiyous Library.

[MS1044].††††††††† Bancroft, Hubert Howe 1832-1918.† History of Oregon. Volume I. 1834-1848.† San Francisco, Calif.: The History Company, Publishers, 1886. History of Oregon consists of 2 volumes.†††† Interprets the "Chasta valley" from the 1837 diary of Philip Leget Edwards to be one and the same as the present-day Rogue River Valley.† Bancroft states "It was not until the 12th of September that the Rogue River Valley was gained." In a footnote Bancroft says: "Edwards in his diary calls this place Chasta valley and river" (p. 147).
††††† Note that it seems more consistent with Edwards's 1837 Diary mileage estimates to say that Edwards was equating the "Chasta valley" with present-day Shasta Valley. It is true that in 1842 Edwards published a guide-book to the Oregon Territory, in which the Rogue River Valley was called the "Chasty Valley;"it was probably the Edwards's 1842 book which influenced Bancroft's interpretation of the 1837 diary. Note also that Edwards's 1837 diary, and Samuel Parker's 1838 book, are the only two sources known which use the '-a' ending for 'Chasta' or 'Shasta' until after the Gold Rush, when the '-a' was adopted by the California State Legislature.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1044].

[MS838].††††††††† Byrd, Cecil K.† The Pacific Northwest.† Bloomington, Ind.: The Lilly Library, Indiana University, 1988. Exhibition catalog.†††† Describes in detail 84 rare books on the History of the Pacific Northwest. The entry on Albert Gallatin's published letters is particularly interesting, because it is underscores his credibility as a geographer. According to the author, Gallatin was the chief American plenipotentiary at the 1818 conference which structured the joint U.S.-English occupation agreement of the Oregon Territory, and that he was later the man who suggested the 54' 40 boundary. In 1836 Gallatin created a map with "Mt. Simpson" as the name for Mt. Shasta; this was the first published map ever to assign a name to the mountain today called Mt. Shasta.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS838].

[MS1203].††††††††† Camp, Charles Lewis 1893-1975. Colonel Philip Leget Edwards and His Influence Upon Early Immigration to the Far West. In: California Historical Society Quarterly. no date. Vol. 3. pp. 73-83. Gives details of the publication of Edwards's 1842 Sketch of the Oregon Territory: Or, Emigrant's Guide which Charles Camp describes as "...being the first far-west emigrant's guide issued as such, and is antedated only by Farnham's 'Travels' and possibly by Bidwell's 'journal' among pieces of literature published by overland explorers primarily to stimulate westward emigration" (p. 73).
††††† Contains the statement: "The Rogue River 'Chasty' Valley, the Umpqua, the 'Wal-lam-ette,' the 'Cowalitz' are considered." Thus Camp equates Edwards's "Chasty" Valley with the present Rogue River Valley.
††††† Illustrated with a photo portrait of Edwards and a photo of the title page of the "only known copy" of the Sketch of the Oregon Territory...† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1203].

[MS77].††††††††† Clyman, James 1792-1881.† [diary of James Clyman, 1845]. In: Camp, Charles Lewis 1893-1975.† James Clyman: Frontiersman, The Adventures of a Trapper and Covered-Wagon Emigrant as Told in His Own Reminiscences and Diaries.† Portland, Ore.: Champoeg Press, 1960. 'Definitive Edition'†††† Contains one of the earliest uses of the word 'siskiew [Siskiyou]' and calls Mt. Shasta the 'Snowy Bute.' In June of 1845 James Clyman, with a group of 35 men, one woman, and three children, passed over the Siskiyou mountains into California. Clyman's diary is one of only a handful of pre-Gold Rush descriptions of Mount Shasta and the surrounding region. He writes ' ...we passed steering for a Tripple shaped high round peaked snowcapd Montain known by the name of the Snowy Bute [Mt. Shasta] .... in the forenoon passed Chesty River [Shasta River] .... a Black conicle Knob [Black Butte] of considerable elivation seems to stand in the center of the pass between the Bute and the point of a Snowy mountain' (pp. 163-164).†
††††† Also noteworthy in this book are the instructions of Mr. Joel P. Walker, written down by Clyman, and warning of Indian troubles and to 'Never fire a gun after crossing the Umpqua mountain untill you cross the siskiew mountain' (p. 156). The book contains extensive footnotes and a general map of the Oregon-California trail of 1845 (facing p. 157).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS77].

[MS917].††††††††† Dale, Harrison Clifford 1885.† The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829: with the Original Journals Edited by Harrison Clifford Dale.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1941. Revised edition.†††† An important book which contains material on the contributions of Jedediah Smith to the cartography of the West. The author provides extensive footnotes and references to extracts from the journals of Jedediah Smith and Harrison G. Rogers. Includes a discussion of the 1836 map of Albert Gallatin. The materials in this book provide clues to Jedediah Smith's naming of "Mt. Simpson" and "Rogers Peak," which are the first names ever provided on maps for present-day Mt. Shasta and Mt. Lassen (see Gallatin "map"). Contains a bibliography (pp. 319-332).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS917].

[MS918].††††††††† Davis, Lee. Tracking Jedediah Smith through Hupa Territory. In: The American Indian Quarterly. Fall, 1989. Vol XIII. No. 4. pp. 369-387. Contains perhaps the most knowledgeable account of the route taken by leader Jedediah Smith, second-in-command Harrison Rogers, and the rest of the party in 1828 from the Sacramento Valley over the mountains northwest of present-day Red Bluff to Hayfork Creek. The author notes that previous accounts of the route have not agreed with the topography of the 1828 journals of Jedediah Smith and/or Harrison Rogers. 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS918].

[MS2].††††††††† Edwards, Philip Leget 1812-1869.† The Diary of Philip Leget Edwards: The Great Cattle Drive from California to Oregon in 1837.† San Francisco, Calif.: Grabhorn Press, 1932. Major portions of the P. L. Edwards diary were published by Harry Wells in the History of Siskiyou County, 1881. The entire diary was published in 1890 in Themis, a Sacramento newspaper published by A. J. Johnson. Later in the same year Johnson published the story as a separate booklet. The diary was also published in 1989 by Ye Galleon Press in an edition of 308 copies, with an introduction by Douglas S. Watson, several illustrations, and an index.†††† The 1837 diary of Philip Leget Edwards is one of the very earliest detailed documents of the exploration of the Mount Shasta region. Philip Leget Edwards and Ewing Young organized a cattle drive of 729 head of cattle from Monterey up the Sacramento Valley and on into Oregon. The route details which Edwards gives suggest the interpretation that the cattle drive came up the present-day upper Sacramento Canyon, past Castle Crags, past Mount Shasta, over the Siskiyous, then to the Rogue River, where the diary ends. They are known to have arrived in the Willamette Valley with 630 cattle surviving the trip.†
††††† Note that in this 1932 edition of the diary Edwards describes the "Shastas," the "Shasta" Valley and "Shasta" River;† however, the original manuscript of this diary, now in the possession of the California State Library, shows that Edwards actually spelled the name as "Chasta." Note also that in 1842 Edwards changed the spelling to "Chasty" (see Edwards Sketch of the Oregon Territory 1842).
††††† The first mention of the name Shasta is recorded on August 20th as the group is leaving the Sacramento Valley: " about two hours came upon the trail of Mr. La Framboise, which we intend following. This morning began traveling among the mountains which separate the valley of the Tulares from that of the Shastas- had some difficulty in following the trail" (p. 29). On the same date Edwards mentions that their leader Mr. Ewing Young had passed with Mr. Kelley through the same area 3 years earlier.
††††† The group found difficult going for nearly two weeks up the river canyon. On Sept. 5, Edwards and a partner set out to climb a towering stony peak about 1/2 mile in front of them. Edwards says "what appeared one peak from the valley, now proved to be four or five. The ascent of the highest was impractable, but we gained the summit of the second in height, and were even now sufficiently elevated to gaze with caution upon the fearful depth below. We are now near the summit of a peak which we had supposed, when in the valley, would command a view of the surrounding scenery, but from this abrupt elevation we now saw ourselves encompassed by awful mountain barriers. On every hand 'Alps on Alps arise' and mingle with the clouds. There appears but one way of exit, along which it appears we must travel. After rolling off stones awhile to see them tumble and smash below, and being very cold, we began to descend. The peak is massive granite" (p. 38). The description fits the Castle Crags massif.
††††† The next day, Sept. 6, they "Moved about 8 miles--road very brushy and difficult. Camped at a spring apparently impregnated with ferruginous matter. Traveling along a bank which sloped abruptly towards the river, a loose mare slipped and stopped not till she reached the bottom" (p. 38). Most likely Edwards had climbed Castle Crags,† and that the group had been camped on Sept. 5 near present-day Castella. If the next day they traveled 8 miles, they then would have exactly reached the well-known and beautiful campsite of Upper Soda Springs on the Sacramento River. According to Edwards, "This is the first encampment, since entering the mountains, known to any of our party." The† Lower Soda Springs is only about one and a half miles from Castella, and thus does not fit Edwards' mileage estimates. On the same day, Sept. 6, Edwards writes that "It is said we shall reach Shasta Valley in three or four days."
††††† On Sept. 7, the group "moved about a mile" and "found a better encampment for our animals than any we have found since the San Joaquin." Possibly this was the Cantara Loop area .
††††† They lay encamped on Sept. 8 and 9.
††††† On Sept. 10th, they "Moved about five miles, and finding excellent grass encamped, and remained the 11th" (p. 40). If Edwards' mileage is correct then this would seem to refer to the Strawberry Valley (Mt. Shasta City) basin.
††††† On Sept. 12th, without giving mileage, Edwards says that they "Made a long and difficult march, and gained the long wished for Shasta Valley; began to leave in the rear our old acquaintance, the snowy peak, with feelings of anything but regret....Long march today" (p. 41). The 'snowy peak' probably means present-day Mt. Shasta, and based on mileage estimates the long wished for "Shasta Valley" seems to be present-day Shasta Valley.†
††††† On Sept. 13, Edwards states that they "Made an early move and halted on a stream-tributary to Rogue's river" (p. 41). Possibly this was the present-day Shasta River. He says they moved 20 miles on Sept. 13th.
††††† On Sept. 14th, Edwards says "Moved camp about 10 o'clock, and after traveling 5 miles crossed Shasta river" (p. 41). Edwards "Shasta River" could have been present-day Klamath River, which at the time was thought by many geographers to have been a south fork of the Rogue. But note that on some English and American maps from the 1830s the Shasta River was placed as a northern fork of the Rogue River, in Oregon. This calls into question the actual location of the "Shasta Valley" of Sept. 12.
††††† At this point in the narrative Edwards states that on the same day, Sept. 14th, Mr. Bailey shot one of five or six Indians approaching the cattlemen. Edwards writes that the group members "Turner, Gay, and Bailey were three of four who had been defeated at the next river, and several of the survivors were much mangled" (p. 43). Note the mention of the "next river."
††††† Turner, Gay and Bailey were survivors from an Indian 'massacre' upon a group two years earlier traveling through the region, and the Bailey 1837 shooting was in retaliation for the earlier 1835 'massacre'. The Eld journal from the 1841 Wilkes-Emmons expedition shows in drawings and maps that the 1835 Turner, Gay, and Bailey 'massacre' took place on the Rogue River. The Rogue river was therefore "the next river" beyond the "Shasta River" of Edwards Sept. 14th entry, leading to the conclusion that the Edwards'"Shasta River" was probably the Klamath.
††††† The diary entries of Sept. 15, 16, 17, and 18 describe in detail the great physical difficulty of passing over the mountains from the "Shasta River" to the Rogue River, difficulties compounded by at least three different Indian attacks at three different places along their route. These Indian attacks necessitated many defensive measures and a lot of shooting.† In the last part of his diary entry for Sept. 18th, Edwards states that they finally reached and "Camped on the spot where Turner and party were defeated two years ago" (p. 47), thus reinforcing the certitude that the Rogue River was the next river up from the "Shasta River"† The diary ends with the entry of Sept. 18th.
†††† Historically, the locations of the diary's "Shasta Valley" and "Shasta River" have been the subject of discussion. On the one hand is the fact that in 1842 Edwards authored one of the very earliest Oregon Territory guidebooks and in that book he uses the term "Chasty" and definitely places the "Chasty" Valley in Oregon.† Accordingly, one comes to the conclusion that Edwards' "Shasta River" and "Shasta Valley " were one and the same as present-day Rogue River and Rogue Valley.
††††† On the other hand, Edwards' "Shasta Valley" and "Shasta River" may well have been one and the same as present-day Shasta Valley and Klamath River. There is good circumstantial evidence in the diary to support this view. The main argument is based on both Edwards's mileage estimates and on his mention of John Turner's 1835 'massacre' site on the Rogue River. Since they were still resting on Sept. 11 about 14 miles north of Castle Crags, it would thus have been nearly forty miles to the Siskiyou pass and even more down to the "Shasta Valley" if the Shasta Valley was the Rogue Valley.† Forty miles seems an excessive distance to travel with cattle in one day. Thus if they could not have reached the Siskiyou pass on Sept. 12, they must have only reached present-day Shasta Valley.
††††† In any event, although the location of the "Shasta Valley" and "Shasta River"is problematic, there is a possible explanation:† that Edwards, Turner and other Americans on the 1837 cattle drive thought that the "Shasta Valley" and "Shasta River" were in California, but that by 1842 Edwards had corrected his place-names in his Oregon Territory guide to conform with the place-names of the Hudson Bay Company use of the "Shasty" Valley and "Shasty" River as names for the Rogue Valley and Rogue River respectively.
††††† Note that it is important that Edwards's diary† leads one to a possible explanation of how the Wilkes-Emmons expedition of 1841 came to mis-name present day Mt. Shasta. A comparison of the personnel shows that Tibbetts and Wood were on both the 1837 Edwards' party and on the 1841 Wilkes-Emmons Overland expedition.† The convention on American and English maps up to 1841 was to name present-day Mt. McLoughlin as "Mt. Shasty." Emmons in his own 1841 journal expressed doubt of whether the present-day Mt. Shasta they saw in 1841 was Pitt or Shasta (see Emmons 1841). Perhaps it was the American trappers and settlers traveling with Emmons, who mistakenly convinced Emmons that the wrong mountain be called "Mt. Shasty".
††††† Additional† particulars of the 1837† cattle drive are found in the record books of Ewing Young (see Young, F. G. "Ewing Young and his Estate with Documentary Records," in OHSQ, Vol. XXI. No. 3., 1920).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS2].

[MS2126].††††††††† Farnham, T. J.† Life, Adventures, and Travels in California to Which are Added the Conquest of California, Travels in Oregon and History of the Gold Regions.† New York, NY: Cornish Lamport and Co., 1851. Pictorial Edition.††† †Text adds a few sentences relevant to the height and aspect of Mt. Shasta which were not in the earlier editions (see AB94/MS1003 and AB 163/16): "The largest of these peaks lie, however, to the eastward, in the President's range. The most conspicuous of these is Mount Jackson, in latitude 41į 40'N. This is the highest elevation in the range to which it belongs-rising nearly seventeen thousand feet above the Ocean, in great abruptness, grandeur, and beauty of outline. Its base rests among deep evergreen woods; and it is girdled higher up with shrubs and hardy plants, to the region of frosts; and there commence the sheeting snows which spread wide and high its vast head with the desolation of eternal cold. The pathway between Oregon and the California passes near it." (p. 337).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS2126].

[MS16].††††††††† Farnham, Thomas Jefferson 1804-1848.† Travels in the Great Western Prairies: the Anahuac and Rocky Mountains and in the Oregon Territory.† London: Richard Bentley, 1843. 'In Two Volumes.' First published in 1841. An 1843 New York edition, containing the author's new 1843 introduction is available as a reprint entitled An 1839 Wagon Train Journal: Travels in the Great Western ... McCallum, Rodney., editor.† Monroe, Washington: Bracken Hill Press, 1977. The page numbers referred to in the annotation below (223-227) will be found on pp. 91-92 in the 1977 reprint edition.†††† Mount Shasta is referred to as "Mount Jackson": "Mount Jackson is in latitude 41 degrees ten minutes. It is the largest and highest pinnacle of the President's Range" (p. 227). Farnham also refers to present Mt. McLoughlin: "Mount Madison is the Mount McLaughlin of the British fur-traders"(p. 227). But note that Farnham's use of the name Mt. McLoughlin probably was for some peak closer to the three Sisters area of Oregon. The use of the terms "President's Range," "Mount Madison," and "Mount Jackson" is attributed by Farnham to the American Hall J. Kelley (p. 225). Farnham himself did not visit the Mt. Shasta region before publishing this book.
††††† Farnham's popular book was first published in 1841 and reprinted several times during the 1840s; it was one of the earliest, perhaps the very first, of books promoting emigration to Oregon (see Camp Colonel Philip Leget Edwards... In: Calif. Hist. Soc. Quart. Vol. 3, p. 73). Thus the name Mt. Jackson may properly be said to have been the most familiar early name for present Mt. Shasta, at least for readers of early 1840s emigration literature. Note that in 1840, and again in 1844, Robert Greenhow gave semi-official sanction to the name "Mt. Jackson" (see Greenhow 1840). Note also that in 1844 Farnham published a different book, entitled Travels in the Californias, and Scenes in the Pacific Ocean and which contains not only† a similar description of "Mount Jackson," but also contains a map depicting the location of "Mount Jackson."
††††† In 1839 Farnham held discussions with Ewing Young. It was from Young, who had traveled with Hall J. Kelley in 1834-1835, that Farnham learned that it was Kelley who first promoted the "President's Range" names. (pp. 223?- 225).
††††† Another interesting name described by Farnham is that of the "Snowy Mountains." He says: "The last spur that deserves notice in this place is that which is called the 'Snowy Mountains.' It has already been described in this work; and it can only be necessary here to repeat that it branches off from the Wind river peak in latitude 41° north, and runs in an irregular broken line to Cape Mendocino, in Upper California" (p. 224). The name "Snowy Mountains" occurs in a few other early publications as a name for the Siskiyous or the Klamaths in general. The name even appears on some maps from before 1800, apparently as a transverse range in the same general region.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS16].

[MS920].††††††††† Farquhar, Francis Peloubet 1887-1974. Jedediah Smith and the First Crossing of the Sierra Nevada. In: Sierra Club Bulletin. June, 1943. Vol. 28. No. 3. pp. 36-53. Contains information about the missing Jedediah Smith map which may show someday that Jedediah Smith named present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mount Simpson" (see Gallatin 1836). Francis Farquhar underscores the curiosity which surrounds the fact that Jedediah Smith created a now lost map. The author quotes an 1832 eulogy of Jedediah Smith entitled "Captain Jedediah Strong Smith: A Eulogy of that Most Romantic and Pious of Mountain Men, First American by Land into California," appearing originally in the Illinois Magazine, June, 1832. The eulogy states that Smith made a "New, large and beautiful map, in which are embodied all that is correct of preceding maps, the known tracks of former travellers, his own extensive travels, the situation and numbers of various Indian tribes, and much other valuable information" (p. 37). Farquhar adds that "No one knows what became of this map. It has not been seen in our time, but there is evidence that it, or a similar map, was seen and used by other map makers a few years after it was made. If Smith's map had been published as contemplated we might have had a clear definition of the many features of the Sierra Nevada and its rivers, which would satisfy our curiosity about his movements and, what is more important, would have furnished a life saving guide to the multitude of explorers and emigrants soon to come" (p. 38).
††††† Also contains Farquhar's conclusions as to the reasons Smith used the name Mount Joseph or Mt. Saint Joseph as a name for the Sierra Nevada. At a later date the name Mt. Joseph became an early name for present-day Mt. Lassen. Also contains several references to C. Hart Merriam's papers on Jedediah Smith.
†††† The maps of Brué 1832, Gallatin 1836, Burr 1839, and Wilkes 1841[actually printed in 1844] are reproduced in this issue facing page 36, and are meant to accompany Farquhar's article. 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS920].

[MS78].††††††††† Gallatin, Albert 1761-1849. Map of the Indian Tribes of North America about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic; and about 800 A.D. westwardly [map]. In: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, of Archaeologica Americana.† 1836. Vol. 2. p. 422. Reprinted in Wheat, Carl I. Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. 2, From Lewis and Clark to Fremont, 1804-1845. The Institute of Historical Cartography. San Francisco, Calif., 1958. Frontispiece.†††† Albert Gallatin's 1836 map of North America shows "Mt. Simpson" as the name for the mountain called today Mount Shasta. Gallatin apparently used a map or maps of Jedediah Smith for many of the place-names on this 1836 map, and therefore it was probably Smith who first named Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Simpson" (see Morgan 1964). As far as is known, Gallatin's map and Tanner's map (also using the name "Mt. Simpson" for Mt. Shasta; see Tanner 1836) are the first maps to give any name at all to present-day Mount Shasta. An earlier map dated 1832 of Mexico by John Arrowsmith depicted Mt. Shasta but assigned the mountain no name (map in the collection of the New York Public Library), and an 1834 map of British North America also by John Arrowsmith showed Mt. Shasta unnamed while at the same time using the name of "Mt. Shasty" for what appears to be present-day Mt. McLoughlin (see LaLande 1987). 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS78].

[MS916].††††††††† Gallatin, Albert 1761-1849.† A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America. In: Dale, Harrison Clifford 1885.† The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829: with the Original Journals Edited by Harrison Clifford Dale.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1941. pp. 313-314.†† Extract only; Gallatin's entire article first appeared in the 1836 American Antiquarian Society Transactions, II.†††† An important article which was originally accompanied by Gallatin's famous 1836 map. The map (facing page 314) showed "Mt. Simpson" as the name of present-day Mt. Shasta, and "Rogers Peak" as the name of present-day Mt. Lassen. Gallatin explains in his text how he received and utilized a manuscript map from Jedediah Smith's friend, General Ashley.
††††† Gallatin's text provides a link to support the contention that the Gallatin 1836 map's place-names of "Rogers Peak" and "Mt. Simpson" were derived from information provided by Smith to General Ashley. From Ashley the information went to Gallatin.
††††† Gallatin writes: "Some unforeseen circumstances have prevented General Ashley of Missouri from communicating to me in time, as he intended, some further information respecting the country which he explored in the Rocky mountains and thence in a southwardly direction beyond Lake Timpanogo. But he has transmitted to me a manuscript map with numerous explanatory notes, the materials for which consist of various journeys and explorations by some of our own enterprising traders and hunters [among others, Jedediah S. Smith]. It is on that authority and subject to such correction as more complete exploration and scientific observation will hereafter render necessary, that several geological innovations have been introduced in the small map annexed to this essay....The discoveries south and west of that place [Great Salt lake=Lake Timpanogo] appear to belong to others, and principally to J. S. Smith" (pp. 313-314).
††††† Circumstantial evidence exists linking Jedediah Smith to the names Rogers and Simpson. On the one hand, Harrison G. Rogers was Smith's second-in-command in 1827, and Rogers perished in the Umpqua massacre that year, though Smith survived. And Governor George Simpson was an invaluable benefactor to Smith in 1828 after the massacre on the Umpqua, and in fact Smith wrote a letter which acknowledges his debt to Simpson (see Smith, Jackson, and Sublette "letter, Oct. 29, 1830..") . Also, Smith's journal of 1827-28 indicates that he saw Mt. Shasta to the north, and if so, he must have seen Mt. Lassen as well (see Smith "Journal..." in: Sullivan, 1934). All these elements taken together, including Gallatin's 1836 text and map, indicate that it was Jedediah Smith who named Mt. Simpson and Rogers Peak, today known as Mt. Shasta and Mt. Lassen, respectively.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS916].

[MS329].††††††††† Gallatin, Albert 1761-1849.† [letter to John C. Frémont, Sept. 15, 1847]. In: Spence, Mary Lee and Jackson, Donald.† The Expeditions of John Charles Frémont: Volume 2, The Bear Flag Revolt and the Court-Martial.† Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1973. p. 381.†† Reprint of a letter dated New York, 15 Sept. 1847.†††† Gallatin wrote to Frémont asking for information about 41st Parallel geography. Albert Gallatin was the first person ever to put on a printed map a name for present-day Mount Shasta, which he named on his 1836 map as "Mount Simpson." "Pit Mountain," a name the Hudson's Bay Company used for present-day Mount Shasta, was probably a name in use prior to 1836, but it was not until 1838 that the "Pit Mountain" name appeared on any map (see Hood 1838). The English mapmaker John Arrowsmith depicted Mount Shasta on his map of Mexico from 1832 and on his map of British North America from 1834 but in both cases gave the mountain no name.† Several historians have noted that Gallatin used information derived from the 1820s travels of Jedediah Smith and it is probable that Smith first named 'Mount Simpson' (see Morgan 1964).
†††† The 1847 Gallatin letter to Fremont helps date Smith's information. In this letter Gallatin mentions that "In a manuscript map prepared in the year 1831 under the direction of General Ashley..." (p. 381). Ashley was Smith's close friend and superior, and was in regular contact with Smith. Thus by 1831 a manuscript map using Smith's information had been created by Ashley, and Gallatin had seen on that map the name of "Mount Simpson" for Mount Shasta. The mountain was probably named for Governor Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company, whom Smith had met and had formally thanked in a published letter.† "Rogers Peak" was the name used on Gallatin's 1836 map for present-day Mount Lassen. Harrison Rogers was Jedediah Smith's friend and second-in-command in 1827 when they explored together the upper Sacramento Valley. Rogers died in the Umpqua massacre in 1828.
††††† In a footnote to the letter, the editors Spence and Jackson quote Gallatin from an article in Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, 2, 1848: xxxvii: "J.S. Smith was no writer. We have nothing from him but the track of his routes, and a few scattered notes, incorporated in a manuscript Map prepared under the direction of the late General Ashley, Charles de Ward draughtsman, 1831" (p. 382).
††††† Vol. 2 of Spence and Jackson's The Expeditions of John Charles Frémont also contains Frémont's reply to Gallatin. In a letter dated Oct. 10th, 1847 Frémont states that he was in the process of preparing a map which will answer Gallatin's questions (p. 422). Another letter by Gallatin to Frémont, dated Oct. 14, 1847, again mentions the Ashley manuscript map of 1831 (p. 430).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS329].

[MS76].††††††††† Gibbs, George 1815-1873.† [letter dated Oct. 23, 1851, Scott's Valley, near 'Mt. Shasti'] . In: Carstensen, Vernon.† Pacific Northwest Letters of George Gibbs.† Portland, Ore.: Oregon Historical Society, 1954. This letter concerns George Gibbs's geographical knowledge of northwestern California and of "Mt. Shasti." In Gibbs's official publications the name is consistently spelled "Mount Shasté," and this published transcription name of† 'Shasti' may be in error. Writing of Scott's Valley, Gibbs says the valley is "...near the great snow peak which commands this vast mountain region, but you will look in vain for it [Scott Valley] upon any map until you see mine, for Frémont's & the others are as far wrong as if they had been of the kingdom of Timbuctoo" (p. 15). The map he refers to as "his map" is presumably the map which he drew to accompany his official report of the 1851 McKee expedition to Shasta Valley, for which Gibbs was Indian interpreter (see Gibbs George Gibbs' Journal…† Heizer, editor 1972). The map drawn by Gibbs to accompany his report was never published and was considered lost, until 1990 when the manuscript map was rediscovered in the U. S. National Archives (see Miesse George Gibbs's Manuscript Map of the 1851 'McKee Expedition' 1992).
††††† George Gibbs made another map, a map called by Carl Wheat the "Smith-Gibbs-Frémont" map. Gibbs was one of the few people who ever saw a map of the west made by Jedediah Smith, the famous American fur trapper. Gibbs made a copy of Smith's map by copying it onto a Frémont map, hence the name Smith-Gibbs-Frémont.† Thus Gibbs' 1851 letter, because it mentions a Frémont map, i.e. "for Frémont's and the others...,"† indirectly dates the Smith-Gibbs-Frémont map as pre-1851.† For more information about the Smith-Gibbs-Frémont map problem see Wheat Mapping the Transmississippi West† Vol. 2, 1958.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS76].

[MS71].††††††††† Gibbs, George 1815-1873.† George Gibbs' journal of Redick McKee's Expedition through northwestern California in 1851.† Berkeley, Calif.: Archaeological Research Facility, Department of Anthropology, University of California , 1972. Reprint. Originally published in : Historical and Statistical Information, Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Collected and Prepared under the Direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs... by Henry R. Schoolcraft. v.3, 1853. Note that 'Gibbs'' was actually misspelled as 'Gibb's' in the 1972 reprint title.†††† George Gibbs's McKee expedition journal was written to be the official report of the expedition from San Francisco to the mouth of the Klamath River, up the Klamath River to Scott Valley and the Shasta Valley. It is one of the most detailed first-hand accounts of the Indians of northern California. In later life Gibbs became a respected ethnographer.
††††† Contains important information about place-names of Mt. Shasta and of other regional landmarks. Gibbs writes about viewing "Mount Shasté" or "Shasté Butte" from Yreka, as well as seeing "the "Pilot Knob" on the"Siskire" range to the north, and "Black or Little Butte," to the south. Note that his mention of Black Butte may be the earliest use of that name in print.
††††† Gibbs attempts to explain the origin of some geographical misconceptions about the region. He says that "Pitt mountain is the same as Mount Madison, and apparently as Mount Simpson of other geographers" (p. 165). Gibbs also writes that "it is this mountain [Mount Shasté], and not Mount Pitt, as was supposed by Mr. Greenhow, which was designated as Mount Jackson by the sponsors of the 'Presidents Range;' and it is the Roger's Peak of Smith. By the Shasté Indians it is called Wy-e-kah" (p. 165). In the above passages Gibbs has managed to mention or infer many important persons including James Madison, Andrew Jackson, Hudson Bay Company Governor George Simpson, Robert Greenhow, Hall J. Kelley, Jedediah Smith, and Harrison Rogers. Without going into detail, Gibbs makes several errors. Briefly, Gibbs apparently did not know that the old Hudson's Bay Company name for Mount Shasta was "Pit Mountain" (see Simpson. Narrative of a Voyage... Fairfield, Wash. Ye Galleon Press, no date); nor did he know that Greenhow did name present-day Mount Shasta as "Mount Jackson" (see Greenhow 1844). Also, Gibbs did not know that the 'Roger's Peak' of Smith can be shown to have been more likely an early name for Mount Lassen and not a name for Mt. Shasta (see Tanner "Map" 1839).
††††† An original map by Gibbs was meant to accompany the report, but the map was never published. Gibbs's original large manuscript map was rediscovered† in 1990 and a copy of this map is available at the College of the Siskiyous, Mount Shasta Special Collection.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS71].

[MS1216].††††††††† Goodrich, Samuel Griswald 1793-1860.† A Pictorial Geography of the World.† Boston, Mass.: C. D. Strong, 1841. Source of Citation: Miesse; copy seen in used bookstore.†††† Lists 'Simpson's Peak's' as one of the southern Cascades. Also lists 'Smith's Peak.' Note that Goodrich also wrote under the pseudonym of 'Peter Parley.'†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49/40. Find List.† [MS1216].

[MS768].††††††††† Hastings, Lansford Warren 1819-1870.† The Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California, Containing Scenes and Incidents of a Party of Oregon Emigrants; A Description of Oregon; Scenes and Incidents of a Party of California Emigrants; and a Description of California; with a Description of the Different Routes to Those Countries; and All Necessary Information Relative to the Equipment, Supplies, and the Method of Traveling.† Cincinnati, Ohio: George Conclin, 1845. 'By Lansford W. Hastings; Leader of the Oregon and California Emigrants of 1842' Some later editions retitled as 'A New History of Oregon and California' and 'A New Description of Oregon and California.'†††† The first California guide book. Lansford W. Hastings led emigrants from Ohio to Oregon in 1842, and from Oregon to California in 1843. His account of the Cascade Range contains an explanation of the influence of Hall J. Kelley on the adoption of the "President's Range" names for the Cascade Peaks. Since Kelley named present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mount Jackson," it is assumed that Hastings' mention of Mt. Jackson is also in reference to Mt. Shasta (see also Kelley. "A History of the Settlement..." In Powell 1932).
††††† Hastings says: "The Cascade mountains constitute that range which lies nearest the coast, and which is called the Cascade, or President's range....It has twelve lofty peaks. Five of these have received the names of the former deceased presidents of the United States. These names were given them, by a Mr. Kelley, a traveler from the United States, several years ago, and they have ever since retained them; hence it is that this range is now called the President's range. The other seven of these extraordinary conical peaks, have received their names from various English travelers and navigators. But five of this seven, have latterly, received the names of five other presidents of the United States. These names, I will also adopt, as I much prefer our own names, for our own property....Mount Monroe is also a vastly elevated peak, extending far into the snowy region; it lies near latitude 43° and 30' north, and is seen at a great distance. Mount John Q. Adams, situated at latitude 42° and 10' north, is also a vast peak, towering high above the snow line. Mount Jackson is among the most elevated peaks, and is surpassed only by mount Washington; it is situated near the forty second degree of north latitude" (p. 26).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS768].

[MS99].††††††††† Hill, Joseph John 1883.† Ewing Young In the Fur Trade of the Far Southwest, 1822-1834.† Eugene, Ore.: Koke-Tiffany Co., 1923. Reprinted from Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 24, No.1.†††† Contains summaries of Ewing Young's major expeditions in and about California.† There is a page devoted to a journey not often mentioned in histories of the California-Oregon trail, that being Young's 1833 journey from the Sacramento river over the Coast Range by way of Clear Lake, to Fort Ross, thence up the coast to the Umpqua, thence up to the headwaters of the Umpqua and on to Klamath Lake, thence southerly, "crossing the Klamath and Rogue Rivers and passing through the camp where McLeod lost his horses and valuable catch of beaver skins, crossed Pitt River and entered the Sacramento valley" (p.32). After the above journey, Young met Hall J. Kelley in Monterey, and together in 1834-5 they traveled east of Mount Shasta on their way to Oregon. In 1837, Ewing Young led a cattle drive from California to Oregon, over the Siskiyou mountains.
††††† The reference that Young passed through the camp where McLeod lost his horses is significant in being one of a handful of references to the location of this famed but as yet unlocated camp site. The McLeod reference came from a published account by J. J. Warner. Note that Hill wrote in a footnote (p. 22) that there exists an unpublished manuscript by J. J. Warner which is housed in the Bancroft Library collection. According to Hill, this Warner manuscript is in part different from J. J. Warner's published reminiscences and it may yet yield more clues to the location of McLeod's camp.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS99].

[MS1147].††††††††† Hines, Gustavus.† Oregon: Its History, Condition and Prospects: Containing a Description of the Geography, Climate and Productions with Personal Adventures Among the Indian during a Residence of the Author on the Plains Bordering the Pacific while Connected with the Oregon Mission: Embracing Extended Notes of A Voyage Around the World.† Buffalo, N. Y.: Geo. H. Derby and Co., 1851. Rev. Gustavus Hines was in the Umpqua region of Southern Oregon in the 1840s. He heard there, from former members of the Hudson's Bay Company, the story of the 1827 Jedediah Smith massacre on the Umpqua River. Hines account is one of the frequently cited sources for the massacre story, although it was taken down somewhat after the fact. In any event, Hines corroborates that Smith was indeed befriended by Gov. George Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company (pp. 110-113).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1147].

[MS287].††††††††† Holmes, Kenneth L.† Ewing Young: Master Trapper.† Portland, Ore.: Binfords and Mort, Publishers, 1967. Published for the Peter Binford Foundation.†††† Ewing Young is best known as the leader of a cattle drive passing by Mount Shasta from California to Oregon in 1837 (see Edwards "Diary of a Cattle Drive..." in Watson 1932). Holmes discusses in detail an earlier expedition by Young (pp. 81-90). This was the extended travel in 1832 to 1833 along a route up the Sacramento Valley, over the Coast Range to a point north of Fort Ross, thence up to the mouth of the Umpqua River, up the Umpqua to its headwaters and thence over the Cascades to Klamath Lake. From Klamath Lake the author states that Young traveled southwest and then: "Young and his men then worked their way over much of the present course of the United States Highway 99, the same route over which the great trapper would later drive Mexican cattle north to the Oregon settlements. They passed towering Mount Shasta, moving south through the Siskiyous, down the valley of the rollicking Shasta River, through groves of filmy pinon pines with their gigantic cones, into the northern end of the hot Sacramento Valley..." Note that the author's interpretation of the Mt. Shasta region route does not necessarily agree with the interpretation of other authors (see Hill 1923).
††††† The author places emphasis on the role of the American trapper John Turner. When Young's group in January of 1833 met Michel Laframboise's and John Work's combined Hudson's Bay Company fur brigade, Turner left the Laframboise and Work brigade and joined up with Young. The author also points out that Turner was one of the survivors from the 1828 Jedediah Smith tragedy on the Umpqua, and that Turner had also been the guide of an Alexander McLeod expedition of 1828-1829 into California. Note that in 1837 Turner was a member of Young's cattle drive. Turner thus had association with many of the most important historical expeditions into the Mt. Shasta region.
††††† Contains an early print (following p. 102) of "Mount Shasta with the Shasta Valley in the foreground." Note that this engraving is actually a view from the northeast of Mt. Shasta and does not show the Shasta Valley. This print appears to be one of those sketched by William Simpson during the Modoc Wars of 1873 (see Hogarth 1972).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS287].

[MS168].††††††††† Johnson, Overton 1820 1849 and Winter, William H. 1819-1879.† Route Across the Rocky Mountains with a Description of Oregon and California; Their Geographical Features, Their Resources, Soil, Climate, Production, Etc., Etc. by Overton Johnson and Wm. H. Winter, of the Emigration of 1843. In: Cannon, Carl L.† Route Across the Rocky Mountains: by Overton Johnson and Wm. H. Winter, of the Emigration of 1843.† Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1932. p. 51, pp. 87-92.†† One of the most readable and reliable travel accounts of the early Oregon - California trail. Leaving the Willamette Valley in June of 1844 this group of 37 persons, "Americans, English, French, Mexicans, and Indians of four different tribes," (p. 84) traveled south towards California. The book contains one of the best statements demonstrating how in early 1840s the name of "Chesty Mountain" or "Chesty Mountains" was sometimes assigned to the present-day Siskiyou mountains (see also Wilkes "Report on the Territory of Oregon" In Oregon Historical Society Quarterly Vol. 12, 1911 pp. 296-297'). Overton and Winter write that: "South of the Rogue's River Valley, is the Chesty Mountain, a single, and almost bald and barren ridge. To the right of the California trail, it bears a little to the south, and interlocks with the mountains on the coast. The Northern base is covered with timber; the summit and Southern side, in many places, with large boulders of granite. The distance across is six miles. Going towards the South, the ascent is gradual, the descent rather steep, but a very good road might be made across, into the Clamuth or Chesty Valley, with lies immediately South of the Chesty Mountain, and has nearly the same course with the valleys of the Umpqua and Rogue's River" (p. 51).
††††† Elsewhere in the book they make clear again that for them the 'Chesty Mountains' (pp. 87-88) are one and the same as the present-day Siskiyou Mountains and that the 'Clamuth Valley' (pp. 88-89) is present-day Shasta Valley. For present-day Mount Shasta they use the term 'Snowy Butte' (p. 89): "Here, on our right, is a high range of Mountains extending North and South; and on our left, the Snowy Butte, a lofty isolated peak, rises from the bosem of an extensive plain, far into the region of eternal snow, and gives rise to the West branch of the Sacramento River, which we struck in ten miles after leaving the Clamuth Valley...." (pp. 89-90).†
††††† In their account they mention an Iroquois Indian who was with them; possibly that was Inass, who was with the Wilkes-Emmons overland expedition of 1841. They also mention what was probably present-day Upper Soda Springs: "Fifteen miles below the point where we first struck this stream [the Sacramento], we came to a Soda Spring, bursting out from the foot of a high hill, and running into a small basin, formed by travelers or Indians, for the convenience of drinking" (p. 90).
††††† Note that author Wm. H. Winter later resided in the Fall River Valley region of northern California and was interviewed in the late 1870s (see Bush and Shurtleff 1878).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS168].

[MS1239].††††††††† Kelley, Hall Jackson 1790-1874.† Memoir. In: House of Representatives, Twenty-fifth Congress, 3rd Session, Territory of Oregon, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Report No. 101 Supplemental.† Washington, D. C.: 1839. Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #60.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49/40. Find List.† [MS1239].

[MS17].††††††††† Kelley, Hall Jackson 1790-1874.† A History of the Settlement of Oregon and the Interior of Upper California and Letters and Documents, 1832-1842. In: Powell, Fred Wilbur.† Hall J. Kelley on Oregon.† Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1932. pp. 218-403.†††††††† Book contains a reproduction of Kelley's 1839 manuscript map of his route past the Mount Shasta region (facing p. 403). The map was derived from his 1834-5 overland travel with Ewing Young (and in part with Michel Laframboise) from Monterey over the Siskiyous to the Columbia River. Kelley is generally acknowledged to be the first to assign the name of "Mt. Jackson" to present-day Mt. Shasta. Kelley called all of the Cascade Range the "President's Range" and named most of the peaks after U.S. Presidents.
††††† The map shows the upper Sacramento as "Pierre's R.", and shows the main Sacramento as "Kelly's R." Also note that the trail Kelley followed goes by the east side of Mt. Shasta.
††††† The "History of the Settlement ...'1868, and the 'Letters and Documents' 1832-1842, contain Kelley's views as to why he himself should be compensated monetarily and given credit for his role in organizing the settlement of the Oregon Territory.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS17].

[MS1224].††††††††† Miesse, William C.† George Gibbs's Manuscript Map of the 1851 'McKee Expedition'.† 1992. Unpublished typescript report, plus photograph of the map.†††† Map previously considered lost. Gibbs's map of the 1851 McKee northern California expedition route was intended to have been published in Schoolcraft's Historical and Statistical Information, Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Collected and Prepared under the Direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs... by Henry R. Schoolcraft. v.3, 1853. Unfortunately the map was late in preparation and was never published. Robert F. Heizer, in his 1972 introduction to Gibbs's journal, stated that: "The map which Gibbs alludes to in the beginning of the second paragraph of his Journal has never been published. If it still exists, as seems probable, it would be a valuable document to make public."
††††† Gibbs introduction to his journal mentions the map. His introduction, in the form of a letter to "Colonel R. M'Kee", dated Benicia, California, Feb. 23, 1852, states: "Sir:--Herewith you will receive a transcript of the diary kept by me during your recent expedition through the north-western part of this State, as also a map illustrating the country, and a few sketches and vocabularies of the languages in use among the Indian tribes through whom we passed."
††††† He continues: "With regard to the map, it is proper to state that it covers a district very little known, and heretofore never surveyed. Those portions adjacent to the route travelled over, are believed to be laid down with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. As regards the rest, the best information which could be obtained has been used. It will be readily understood, that in a rapid march through a region of such considerable extent, many details have been passed over, which, in some respects, are important; but the general features of the country may be relied on as accurate."
††††† In 1990 the author located, in the U. S. National Archives, the original large Gibbs' manuscript map which appears complete and apparently ready for engraving. Though prominently inscribed as prepared by George Gibbs, the map was not cataloged under Gibbs' name. The map itself, being a detailed map not only of the McKee route but of much of northern California, and containing many place names and trails, is a valuable addition to the legacy of early maps of California.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1224].

[MS291].††††††††† Morgan, Dale Lowell 1914-1971.† Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West.† Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press, 1964. First published in 1953.†††† Dale Morgan was a highly respected historian of the American west. His several books on Jedediah Smith are thoroughly documented and full of quotations from Smith's journals. In the present book Morgan writes : "Far to the north, 'verry high Peaks of the Mountain were seen covered with snow,' and thus, from the vicinity of Chico, Jededah was getting a look at Mt. Shasta" (p. 260). Smith may have been the second person ever to have mentioned seeing this peak; Peter Skene Ogden probably was the first (see LaLande 1987).
††††† This book also offers a discussion of one of the early names of Mt. Lassen. The problematic name of "Mount Saint Joseph" was coined by Jedediah Smith apparently to be applied to the entire Sierra Nevada range. Morgan feels that the name comes from Smith's friendship with Father José Bernardo Sanchez, head of the Mission San Gabriel (p. 202), and "the suggestion that Jedediah named the Sierra for Mission San Jose is not even remotely possible"(p. 415). On maps from the 1830s, the name of Mt. Saint Joseph not only changed to Mt. Joseph, but as a name it migrated northward to become a standard early name for today's Mt. Lassen.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS291].

[MS389].††††††††† Morgan, Dale Lowell 1914-1971.† The West of William H. Ashley: The International Struggle for the Fur Trade of the Missouri, the Rocky Mountains, and the Columbia, with Explorations beyond the Continental Divide, Recorded in the Diaries and Letters of William H. Ashley and His Contemporaries, 1822-1838.† Denver, Colo.: The Old West Publishing Company, 1964. Dale Morgan explains how Jedediah Smith's maps came into the possession of William H. Ashley. Note that the name of "Mt. Simpson" for Mt. Shasta, and the name of "Roger's Peak" for Mt. Lassen as these names appear on Gallatin's map of 1836, were derived from the chain of maps from Smith to Ashley to Gallatin.
††††† The author explains the circumstances which led to the now lost Smith map coming into the hands of William H. Ashley. Morgan states that: "Some additional evidence that Ashley preserved Jedediah Smith's manuscript map of the West after Smith embarked upon his fatal journey of 1831 is found in a letter Hugh Campbell wrote his brother Robert from Philadelphia, July 19, 1834. Hugh commented that Jedediah's younger brother Ira, on the occasion of a February visit to Philadelphia, had 'promised to send me the [Smith] Journal & a map left by his brother with a view to their arrangement for publication. He has gone to Santa Fe--and perhaps has left them in charge of some person. Gen. Ashley had the maps which he said he would procure from him. Can you obtain them--& are they worth sending on?' As Jedediah Smith's friend and confidant, and as executer of his will until replaced by Ira G. Smith early in 1833, Ashley had come into possession of Smith's notable map (or maps) of the West. In addition to giving Gallatin and Tanner access to this map, at some time Ashley made it (or them) available to David H. Burr, onetime 'Geographer to the House of Representatives,' who made full use of the opportunity in drawing his 'Map of the United States of North America, With Parts of the Adjacent Countries', published in the year after Ashley's death..." (p. 323).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS389].

[MS1045].††††††††† [Nevada Gazette]. [Philip Leget Edwards' cattle drive of 1837]. In: Nevada Gazette. June 5, 1869. Source of Citation: Bancroft 'Hist. of Ore. Vol. 1,' p. 149-150.††† Bancroft states: 'In the Nevada Gazzette of June 5, 1869, is an article by an anonymous writer which refers to this expedition. It represents Young as overbearing and disliked by the men; also saying that in the Siskiyou Mountains five of them had conspired to kill him and others on a certain night...Turner being the one elected to shoot Young....' [Note from Dennis Freeman: 'Nevada Co. Librarian could not locate this article in this issue 4/18/95.']†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49/40. Find List.† MS1045].

[MS350].††††††††† Nunis, Doyce Blackman Jr. 1924.† Michel Laframboise 1793-1861. In: Hafen, LeRoy R. 1893.† The Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1968. pp. 145-170. ††A Guggenheim Foundation funded study. The author consulted dozens of original documents in the Hudson's Bay Company archives in London and used other primary sources. He states that "although Laframboise is spelled in a variety of ways in primary sources and secondary references, the correct spelling is taken from the baptismal entry and should be accepted as standard, as it was by the HBC in its records" (p. 145). It is further stated that Laframboise was born "Jean Baptiste EugŹne Laframboise", but later chose to use his father's prenom of "Michel."†
††††† Michel Laframboise is an important figure in the history of exploration of the Mount Shasta region: the California-Oregon† trail via the west slopes of Mount Shasta and the upper Sacramento River has frequently been called the "Laframboise† trail." Note there is not a large body of facts outlining the so-called "Laframboise trail."† Correspondingly, Nunis does not discuss Laframboise's legendary route on the west side of Mount Shasta. The author does state that Laframboise in 1832 took McLeod's 1828 route to San Francisco. Using McLeod's Feb. 1830 report, Nunis decides that this route "became an established inland route: up the Rogue River to the confluence of the Applegate to Upper Klamath Lake; southward, but east of Mount Shasta to the Pit River; from Pit into the Sacramento River Valley" (p. 152).
††††† Nunis explains that Laframboise arrived at Astoria on the mouth of the Columbia River in 1811 under the employ of J.J. Astor and that he later worked for the North West Company and then the Hudson's Bay Company. Laframboise knew personally many of the historically important people whose names are associated with Mount Shasta, including Alexander McLeod, John Work, Francis Ermatinger, Hall J. Kelley, and Charles Wilkes. The author states that Wilkes: " 'was glad to meet with a guide of such intelligence' and 'derived much information' from him in respect to California since 'all parties refer [to him] as possessing the most accurate knowledge of the country" (p. 166).
††††† Contains a photograph of Laframboise and his wife and child taken in 1856 (p. 16).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS350].

[MS882].††††††††† Oliphant, J. Orin.† On the Cattle Ranges of the Oregon Country.† University of Washington Press, 1968. Contains information about the 1837 Ewing Young-Philip Leget Edwards cattle drive from California to Oregon. The author has done original research and has documented his sources. Also contains detailed discussions of the Hudson's Bay Company fur trade operations.††††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS882].

[MS351].††††††††† Palmer, Joel 1810-1881.† Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains.† Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1983. First published in 1847 as 'Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, to the Mouth of the Columbia River; Made during the Years 1845 and 1846: Containing Minute Descriptions of the Valleys of the Willamette, Umpqua, and Clamet; a General Description of the Oregon Territory; Its Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Productions, etc., etc.; a List of Necessary Outfits for Emigrants; and a Table of Distances from Camp to Camp on the Route. Also; A Letter from the Rev. H.H. Spalding, resident Missionary, for the Last Ten Years, among the Nez Perce Tribe of Indians....Tables of about 300 words of the Chinook Language...' Cincinnati: J. A. James Company.†††† Palmer himself had not yet visited the southern Oregon Territory at the time he wrote this book. Both Palmer's inclusion of the Spalding letter, and Palmer's mention of conversations with Joel Walker (a civilian who was with the Wilkes - Emmons Overland Expedition of 1841) lead one to believe that Palmer's confusing description of the Rogue and Clamet region apparently was derived from Walker and Spalding. Palmer says that: "South of the Klamet mountains spreads out the beautiful valley watered by the Klamet River. This estimed one of the best portions of Oregon....The Indians are more numerous here than in the valley further north, and as in the Umpquah and Rogue's river valley's, more hostile" (p. 91). From this description, from other descriptions of preceding paragraphs and from Spalding's letter ("The rivers Umpqua, Rose and Clamet," p. 153), it appears that to Palmer the' Klamet' was present day Rogue River, and that perhaps their intermediate 'Rogue' river or 'Rose' river was the south fork of the present-day Umpqua or was some other branch of the present-day Rogue.
††††† Note that on p. 176 there is a biography of Joel Walker taken from a 1906 publication by R. G. Thwaites.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS351].

[MS378].††††††††† Reading, Pierson B.† [trapping in the Mt. Shasta region]. In: Memorial and Biographical History of Northern California, Illustrated: Containing a History of this Important Section of the Pacific Coast from the Earliest Period of its Occupancy to the Present Time, together with Glimpses of its Prospective Future; Full-Page Portraits of its most Eminent Men, and a Biographical Mention of many of its Pioneers, and also of Prominent Citizens of To-day.† Chicago, Ill.: Lewis Publishing Company, 1891. pp. 243-244.††† Story quoted, but no source of quote given, from P. B. Reading, pioneer of Shasta County. This is one of the few accounts of the famous pioneer coming to the Mt. Shasta region: "In the spring of 1845 I left Sutter's Fort for the purpose of trapping the waters of upper California and Oregon. My party consisted of thirty men, with 100 head of horses....On leaving the Trinity I crossed the mountains at a point which led me to the Sacramento River, about ten miles below the Soda Springs. I then passed into the Shasta and Klamath settlements, prosecuting my hunt. Having been successful, returned in the fall to Sutter's Fort" (p. 244).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS378].

[MS454].††††††††† Rodgers, Francis A. Jedediah Smith in the West. University of California, 1941 (Thesis). Source: Peterson.††† †40. Find List/08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS454].

[MS914].††††††††† Rogers, Harrison G.† The Second Journal of Harrison G. Rogers. In: Dale, Harrison Clifford 1885.† The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829: with the Original Journals Edited by Harrison Clifford Dale.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1941. pp. 242-274.†† Revised edition.†††† "The Second Journal of Harrison G. Rogers."† In Dale, Harrison Clifford (1885-).† The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829: with the Original Journals Edited by Harrison Clifford Dale.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1941. pp. 242-274. Revised edition.
††††† Consists of an overland journal by Harrison G. Rogers, second-in-command of the famous Jedediah Smith "Umpqua Massacre" journey from California to Oregon. This was the expedition which ended in death at the hands of Indians of 16 of the 19 members of the party. The massacre camp was on the Umpqua River. Only Jedediah Smith, Arthur Black, and John Turner survived the attack.
††††† Rogers's journal underscores the close relationship between Rogers and Smith. This is significant because it may be that the Rogers Peak on the 1836 maps of both Gallatin and Tanner was named by Jedediah Smith in honor of his friend Harrison Rogers. Rogers Peak on the 1836 maps is undoubtedly one and the same as present-day Mt. Lassen, Gibbs to the contrary (see Gibbs, in Heizer "George Gibbs' Journal..." 1972). The Harrison G. Rogers journal, which was retrieved from the Umpqua region sometime after the massacre, contain entries for the dates May 10th to July 13, 1828, but does not mention any mountain which could be construed as being Mt. Shasta. Sometime before May 10th the group of explorers had ascended the Sacramento Valley almost to its head, as reported by Smith himself, whose diary also exists (see Smith "journal of Jedediah Strong Smith" in Sullivan The Travels of Jedediah Smith). The group crossed over the Coast Range to the coast by a route only partially described in either Rogers's or Smith's journals. Rogers's journal begins somewhere in the middle of the traverse to the coast.† The Rogers journal is one of the most important and earliest of northern California exploration documents.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS914].

[MS1206].††††††††† Ross, Alexander 1783-1856.† Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River 1810-1813.† Cleveland, Ohio: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1904. 'Edited with Notes, Introductions, Index, etc. by Reuben Gold Thwaites. (Separate publication from 'Early Western Travels: 1748-1846,' in which this series appeared as Volume VII.)'†††† Illustrated by a later map which shows Mt. Shasta. Also may contain an account of Ross being the first explorer in the Klamath region, making him the first person to see Mt. Shasta, perhaps.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49/40. Find List.† [MS1206].

[MS722].††††††††† Simpson, George 1792-1860.† Part of Dispatch from George Simpson Esq.r Governor of Ruperts Land to the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company London. March 1, 1829. Continued and Completed March 24 and June 5, 1829.† Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1947. Introduction by W. Stewart Wallace. Added tile page: 'Simpson's 1828 Journey to the Columbia.'†††† This "Dispatch" fills an entire book and contains a wealth of details about the Hudson's Bay Company movements in the Oregon Territory up to 1828.† Simpson provides backgroundfor Jedediah Smith's route: "From St. Francisco they took a Northerly course along the north branch of the Buona Ventura, found the River well stocked with beaver....Their object in taking this Northerly course, was to fall upon the Wilhamot....but they found the country much more rugged and mountainous than they expected, and were obliged to pass round by the Coast" (p. 59).
††††† In 1828 George Simpson, governor of North American operations for the Hudson's Bay Company, visited the Columbia River region. When Simpson arrived at Fort Vancouver he met and befriended the American trapper Jedediah Smith, who had recently escaped death at the hands of the Indians on the Umpqua river. Simpson's dispatch establishes the fact that the Hudson's Bay Company, and Simpson in particular, felt sympathy for Smith's plight. The question is: Did Jedediah Smith name present Mt. Shasta as 'Mt. Simpson?' This dispatch does not offer anything but a bit of circumstantial evidence of Smith's debt to Simpson. Simpson says: "Smith, the head of the firm of Smith Jackson & Siblet who nows enjoys our hospitality and protection (and whom I have already noticed as having been with Mr. Ogden at the Flat head Post) has been truly unfortunate, and as the circumstances which placed him here, may become a subject of future misrepresentation and inquiry, I shall now detail them, principally from his own report, for your honors information"(pp. 56-57).† If it was Jedediah Smith who named present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Simpson" (see Gallatin "map" 1836 in Wheat 1958) sometime between 1828 and 1831 (the year Smith died), then this first-person account by Simpson is valuable in corroborating the fact that Smith was indeed indebted and grateful to the HBC and to Simpson in particular.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS722].

[MS170].††††††††† Smith, Jedediah Strong 1798-1831.† [journal, 1828, of Jedediah Strong Smith]. In: Sullivan, Maurice S.† The Travels of Jedediah Smith: A Documentary Outline, Including the Journal of the Great American Pathfinder.† Santa Ana, Calif.† The Fine Arts Press, 1934. Smith's 1828 journal may contain the second recorded sighting of Mount Shasta. Peter Skene Ogden is generally credited with the first recorded sighting of Mount Shasta on Dec. 25, 1826 (see LaLande 1987, p.15). Smith's March 28, 1828 entry reads: "Far off to the north verry high Peaks of the Mountain were seen covered with snow. The valley at that place was apparently about 50 Miles in width" (p. 74).
††††† At the time of writing the above entry Smith was on the eastern side of the Buenaventura [Sacramento] River somewhere far north in the Sacramento Valley. On April 10th Smith's journal gives the best hint of how far up the Sacramento Valley he had come since March 28, and by inference where he was on March 28, since his journal entries record only about 30 miles of northward travel. He says on April 10th ".... found the river coming from the N E and running apparently for 20 or 30 Miles through ragged rocky hills. The mountain beyond appeared too high to cross at that season of the year or perhaps at any other. Believing it impossible to travel up the river I turned Back into the valley and encamped on the river with the intention of crossing. For this purpose I set some men at work to make a skin canoe. My Camp seemed in a curve of the Mountain. Mt. Joseph [the entire Sierra Nevada] gradually bending to the west appeared in conjunction with the low range on the west side of the river which in its course north joined it to encircle the sources of the Buenaventura" (p. 79). When Smith mentions the conjunction of the east and west mountain ranges he must mean that he could see the McCloud mountains, and thus the "to the north verry high Peaks of the Mountain" would have meant Mount Shasta.
††††† The book contains a fold-out reproduction of the 1839 map of California by Burr. Burr's map of 1839 is thought to contain place-names given by Smith. On this map there is a large mountain named Rogers Peak. Rogers was Smith's partner on the expedition. Most commentators (Gibbs 1851; Wheat 1957) have assumed that Rogers Peak is supposed to be present-day Mount Shasta; however, because the Pitt river is seen to circle around the north of the mountain, the representation is more likely to be of present-day Mount Lassen. This would be in accord with the Gallatin and Turner maps of 1836 which show Rogers Peak as Mt. Lassen.
††††† This book also contains the journal of Alexander McCleod's September 1828 journey with Jedediah Smith from Fort Vancouver to the Umpqua River (pp. 11-35). Also contains letters from John McLoughlin and George Simpson to Jedediah Smith. The book is extensively footnoted.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS170].

[MS915].††††††††† Smith, Jedediah Strong 1798-1831.† [letter dated July 12, 1827, explaining the origin of the name Mount Joseph]. In: Dale, Harrison Clifford 1885.† The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829: with the Original Journals Edited by Harrison Clifford Dale.† Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1941. pp. 182-190.†† Revised edition.†††† Mount Joseph appears on several early maps of California as a name for present-day Mt. Lassen. However, the earliest maps to use the name of Mount Joseph seem to use the name for the entire Sierra Nevada, or at the very least, as a name for portions of the great range. It was Jedediah Smith himself in 1827 who first used the name Mount Joseph. He made the first crossing by EuroAmericans of the Sierra Nevada and wrote about it in a letter: "On my arrival at the river whiched I named the Wimmul-che (named after a tribe of Indians which resides on it, of that name) I found a few beaver, and elk, deer, and antelope in abundance. I here made a small hunt, and attempted to take my party across the [mountain] which I before mentioned, and which I called Mount Joseph, to come on and join my partners at the Great Salt lake. I found the snow so deep on Mount Joseph that I could not cross my horses, five of which starved to death." Note that the first crossing of the Sierra Nevada was from west to east.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS915].

[MS660].††††††††† [Smith, Jedediah Strong 1798-1831.† [Umpqua massacre of 1830]. In: Ogden, Peter Skene 1790-1854.† Traits of American Indian Life and Character: By a Fur Trader.† New York: AMS Press, 1972. pp. 6-9.†† Reprint of the 1933 Grabhorn Press edition. Original book was published in London in 1853.†††† In 1828 on the Umpqua River in southern Oregon Jedediah Smith's fur trade party was attacked and most of his men killed. Smith escaped unharmed. Ogden's autobiography contains several pages about the massacre. As Ogden says: "I was intimately acquainted with poor Smith, and it was from himself that I learned the particulars of his misfortunes first alluded to. As the brief story will tend to confirm my observations upon the Indian character, I will here relate it in the narrator's own words." (p. 6). What follows are several pages in Smith's own words relating the story of his travels and disaster.† Smith was the probable source of the name Mt. Simpson as applied to Mt. Shasta on the 1836 Gallatin (see Gallatin "map" In Wheat 1958) but no information relative to these names is given in Smith's account. But the very existence of the first person account of the Umpqua massacre of 1828 helps bring to life the very excitement of the times.
††††† For the interesting background of Ogden's book, which was read in manuscript form by both Jesse Applegate and Washington Irving, see: Elliott, T. C. Peter Skene Ogden- Fur Trader. Portland, 1910.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS660].

[MS1036].††††††††† Smith, Jedediah Strong 1798-1831, Jackson, David E, and Sublette, W. L.† [letter, Oct. 29, 1830, to the Secretary of War, expressing Smith's gratitude to Hudson's Bay Company Governor George Simpson]. In: Morgan, Dale Lowell 1914-1971.† Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West.† Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press, 1964. pp. 343-348.†† First published in 1953.†††† Contains a possible link between Jedediah Smith and the naming of Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Simpson." Letter states: "In saying this, it is an act of justice to say, also, that the treatment received by Mr. Smith at Fort Vancouver was kind and hospitable; that, personally, he owes thanks to Governor Simpson and the gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, for the hospitable entertainment which he received from them, and for the efficient and successful aid which they gave him in recovering from the Umpquah Indians a quantity of fur and many horses, of these Indians had robbed him in 1828' (p.348).
††††† The above passage offers one possible explanation of the name of "Mt. Simpson" for present-day Mt. Shasta. It is still conjecture, but it is likely that it was Jedediah Smith who created and assigned the names Mt. Simpson and Rogers Peak which first appear on the Gallatin and Tanner maps of 1836.
††††† Smith and Simpson were both at Fort Vancouver from late Dec. 1828 to Mar. 1829, and Simpson offered generous payment for Smith's horses and remaining furs. Simpson even offered an invitation to Smith to accompany him east through Canada in the Spring (see Morgan 1964, pp. 286-289). Thus Smith may have had enough admiration for Governor Simpson to name present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Simpson." Smith apparently saw Mt. Shasta in 1828 (see Smith "journal..." in Sullivan 1934). Alternatively, it may be that the Hudson's Bay Company itself called present-day Mt. Shasta as "Mt. Simpson," and that Smith followed that usage. In any event, the earliest name for present-day Mt. Shasta on any map so far discovered is "Mt. Simpson." Because the 1836 naming of Rogers Peak for present-day Mt. Lassen seems most assuredly a name given by Smith in honor of Harrison G. Rogers, Smith's second-in-command who perished in the Umpqua massacre of 1828, it seems most likely that Smith named "Mt. Simpson" in honor of his English benefactor.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1036].

[MS743].††††††††† Swartzlow, Ruby Johnson.† †Peter Lassen.† Mineral, Calif.: Loomis Museum Association, 1982. First published in 1964. Revised edition in 1982. Published in cooperation with the National Park Service†††† Contains a manuscript map by Peter Lassen from circa 1843 showing the 'Sister Buttes' as the name of Lassen Peak and Brokeoff Mountain.
††††† Also contains a manuscript map by J. Goldsborough Bruff from circa 1850 showing Mt. Shasta named as 'Tschastes'† (p. 21).†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS743].

[MS390].††††††††† Tanner, Henry Schenck 1786-1858.† North America [map]. In: Morgan, Dale Lowell 1914-1971.† The West of William H. Ashley: The International Struggle for the Fur Trade of the Missouri, the Rocky Mountains, and the Columbia, with Explorations beyond the Continental Divide, Recorded in the Diaries and Letters of William H. Ashley and His Contemporaries. 1822-1838.† Denver, Colo.: The Old West Publishing Company, 1964. p. 88.†† This map was first published in Tanner's 'New Universal Atlas,' 1836.†††† The name of 'Mt. Simpson' for Mt. Shasta, and the name of 'Rogers Peak,' for Mt. Lassen, as these names appear on this Tanner map of 1836,† are possibly derived from the historical chain of maps from Jedediah Smith to Ashley to Tanner (see Morgan 1964, p. 323). This map is one of two maps to show the name of 'Mt. Simpson' for present-day Mt. Shasta. The other map is Gallatin's 1836 map. Mt. Simpson was the very first name ever given on a map for present-day Mt. Shasta.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS390].

[MS1153].††††††††† Thornton, Jesse Quinn 1810-1888.† Oregon and California in 1848: With an Appendix, Including Recent and Authentic Information on the Subject of the Gold Mines of California, and Other Valuable Matter of Interest to the Emigrant, etc. with Illustrations and a Map, By J. Quinn Thornton, Late Judge of the Supreme Court of Oregon, and Corresponding Member of the American Institute, in Two Volumes.† New York: Arno Press, 1973. First published 1849 in New York by Harper and Brothers, Publishers. 1973 reprint, two volumes in one.†††† Mentions "Mt. Shaste" and the "Siskia Mountains."† Contains a listing of the President's Range mountains, stating† that:† "Mt. Madison is the Mount McLoughlin of the British. It is in about 43°, 30'. Mount Monroe is near 43° 20', and is the Mount Shaste of the British. Mount John Quincy Adams is near latitude 42°10 minutes. Mount Jackson is situated in about latitude 41°, 40', and is the Mount Pitt of the British" (Vol. 1, p. 257). Note that his usage equates the British "Mount Shaste" with the American "Mount Monroe," a mountain probably north of present Mount McLoughlin. This usage of Mount Shaste for a mountain north of present Mt. McLoughlin, and not for Mt. McLoughlin itself, is a usage which fits the apparent position of Mount Shaste on some early maps. It is a problematic usage that should be considered when theorizing about the name "Shasta."
††††† The author also equates the British "Mt. Pitt" with "Mt. Jackson," a mountain now known as Mt. Shasta. The name 'Pit Mountain' as a name for Mt. Shasta, or possibly as a name for the long ridge east of Mt. Shasta, first appears on early maps in 1838, on the Washington Hood map. Thornton issued a map with his book, but it does not accompany the reprint, and has not been seen. Thornton's statement that the British called present Mt. Shasta "Mt. Pitt " is significant as corroboration for the idea that P. S. Ogden did not name present Mt. Shasta in 1826-27 (see Merriam 1926).
†††† Also contains an early description of the Siskiyou mountains. The author and his wife, as part of a group of emigrants, traveled through the "Siskia" [Siskiyous] in 1846. The author's comments indicate that the origin of the name was unknown to them: "On the following morning we commenced ascending a mountain usually known as the Siskia Mountains, I know not why it is so called. It was very high and steep, and the ascent was exceedingly difficult" (Vol. 1, p. 197). From Thornton's description it is apparent that "Siskia" was a name used by Jesse Applegate: "All that we knew of the mountain, was vague and uncertain. Applegate had mentioned it by name, indeed, and had spoken of the ascent as being short and easy. But this--like almost everything he had said of the road--we learned, by sad and painful experience, to be untrue" (Vol. 1, p. 198).
††††† The author's group was following the Applegate cut-off from Nevada to the Oregon Territory. Their leader was the originator of the Applegate Cut-off, Jesse Applegate himself; the book is in part devoted to exposing Applegate as having perpetrated a dangerous fraud, one which nearly killed Thornton and his wife, and caused them to lose all their property. The author, a jurist and highly literate individual, is very pointed, and unforgiving, in exposing "the cruel and heartless betrayal of Applegate." The descriptions of the emigrants' starvation along the route, especially through the "Siskia" and "Umpqua" Mountains, makes a unusual story (see also Helfrich 1976 for criticism of Thornton's vendetta). Note that Thornton's group could have faired far worse; on the main emigrant trail they had earlier passed by the Donner party, who were soon to choose the Hastings' Cut-off route to oblivion. Thorton, incidentally, tells the Donner story in this book (in Vol. 2), and his account of that tragedy is considered one of the best in print.†††† 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS1153].

[MS682].††††††††† Young, Frederick George 1858-1929. Ewing Young and His Estate with Documentary Records: A Chapter in the Economic and Community Development of Oregon. In: Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. Sept., 1920. Vol. 21. No. 3. This article contains several previously unpublished documents about the 1837 California to Oregon cattle drive of Ewing Young and Philip Leget Edwards. Two items are particularly interesting. The first is a photo-reproduction of a petition dated S. F. March 10th, 1837, from Edwards to the Governor of Upper California, asking for permission to buy cattle and then to take these cattle to Oregon. The second item is a list of the subscribers and their financial and service contributions. Most of the people on this list were also on the expedition itself. This list is valuable for it allows one to interpret some aspects of the P. L. Edwards (see Edwards "diary of a cattle drive..." in Watson 1932) diary. For example, in Edwards's diary the name 'Carmichael' is mentioned. Is this a first name or a last name? On the list, however, one finds the name L. Carmichael, thus answering the question.
††††† The article also contains research about the 1834-1835 Ewing Young- Hall J. Kelley California to Oregon expedition. Both the 1834-1835 and 1837 expeditions passed near Mt. Shasta. 08. Early Exploration: American Trade and Migration, 1828-49.† [MS682].


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