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Mount Shasta
Annotated Bibliography


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Purpose and Scope Problems of History About the Collection
Acknowledgments The Organization of the Bibliography The Entry Format

Purpose and Scope

The main purpose of this bibliography is quite simply to present in an organized and accessible manner the wide range of published and unpublished materials pertaining to the study of Mount Shasta. An astonishing number of books, articles, and manuscripts offer significant information on all sorts of topics about Mount Shasta. But Mount Shasta-related information is often buried as a page or two within a larger work, and unless one knows where to look, there is some difficulty in finding the pertinent information. The present bibliography is meant to be a guide to these difficult-to-find sources of information. Only those portions of a work which offer Mount Shasta-related material are discussed in the annotations. The bibliography is meant to be a master reference list to enable students, scholars, and other interested readers to quickly locate these sources of information. Out of approximately 2500 works reviewed for this project about 1200 were selected as having some relevant and in most cases some unique information, or literary value, not found in any other work. Books, magazines, newspapers, science journals, personal letters, diaries, unpublished manuscripts, illustrations, advertising materials, audiovisual materials, and so on, have been found to contain valuable details of Mount Shasta's science, art, history, and literature.

Thus this Mount Shasta bibliography is a multipurpose reference and information tool. It organizes, opens up, and guides the reader to a vast array of specific materials about Mount Shasta topics. It is meant as a practical work to be used by students writing reports, by business people seeking new ideas for tourism, by scientists looking for prior reports in their field, by anyone, in fact, who has a need for information about the mountain.

Some readers may wonder why there are so many materials, especially historical materials, about Mt. Shasta. The answer, I think, has to do with three things. First, it is a massive and imposing mountain--on some globes of the world Mt. Shasta and San Francisco Bay are the only California objects with labeled names. The second reason is location. Dominating the landscape and perpetually snowy, Mt. Shasta showed the traveler in California where the trail passed into Oregon. Fur trappers, immigrants, and gold-seekers alike pointed to Mount Shasta for their bearings. Thus Mount Shasta marked the path of California-Oregon trail, and it was over that trail that passed some of the most important men and women of the early West. The third reason why so many materials have been written about Mt. Shasta is that it is intrinsically an ecological, geological, and scenic landmark that holds many secrets for the scientist, writer, and artist. Thus taken together it was Mount Shasta's massive size, its strategic location, and its intrinsic scientific and artistic uniqueness, which combined to make the mountain a highly documented place upon the earth. This bibliography hopefully will help to make better- known the existence of the many documents recording Mount Shasta's legacy.

This bibliography is also an avenue that the reader can use to connect up with a legacy greater than that of just Mount Shasta itself. Scientists, artists, and writers have found through this mountain some insight, small or large, which has contributed to the world-wide quest for knowledge and creative expression. Almost every single entry listed in this bibliography can be interpreted as having direct or indirect significance to the larger questions of knowledge guiding the sciences and humanities. The Geologist and Zoologist, the Artist and the Writer, the Explorer and the Fur Trader, the Archaeologist and the Historian, and so on, have all written or expressed, consciously or unconsciously, how Mount Shasta fitted into their own particular search for answers. The explorer needed to find new routes of passage and made maps so that others could follow, the professional ethnographer wanted to know how the Native American stories of Mt. Shasta related to the Native American stories of other mountains in other regions, the geologist wondered if the rocks of Mt. Shasta could tell secrets of the earth's interior, the artist and the writer wondered what Mt. Shasta would look like when finally seen. In all these cases significant contributions have been made to the traditions of western and world civilization.

The idea that Mt. Shasta can be studied in relationship to the world is not as overblown an idea as it might seem. The California artists who came to Mt. Shasta in the 1870s had traveled to, and were trained in, the art schools of France and Germany. The Wilkes Expedition of 1838-1842, which sent an overland group to Mt. Shasta in 1841, discovered the Antarctic, made the first circumnavigation of the globe for the U. S., and helped establish the Smithsonian institution. The writer Joaquin Miller first achieved his fame in London through his writings about Mt. Shasta. The Mt. Shasta photographs of Carlton Watkins, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams, all relate to the history of photography. Mountaineers, like Swami Ram in 1903, came from as far away as India to climb the great peak. And it is not only individuals that illustrate this worldliness of Mt. Shasta. The Native American traditions and languages of Mt. Shasta can be studied as a parts of a world-wide pattern of language and culture. The history of international politics can be illuminated in the stories of Mexican, British, and American claims to the Mt. Shasta region. The study of Mt. Shasta's mystic legends of Lemuria and of the Ascended Masters can take one back in time to traditions of myth centuries old. Thus the world can be seen in many ways to be reflected, so to speak, off the snowy slopes of Mt. Shasta. This world perspective makes the study of Mt. Shasta very interesting and important. There are few places in the world that stand out so clearly and allow so many types of science, art, and literature to be brought together in one place.

This bibliography covers a lot of ground, intellectually speaking. However, although the subject matter is wide-ranging and the traditions long-standing, the time- frame of the actual books and documents is really not that great by European or Asian standards. In fact the earliest documents in this bibliography pertaining to Mt. Shasta are the Lapérouse manuscripts of 1786, which are only about 200 years old. When one realizes that some of the oldest universities in England were founded over 800 years ago it places Mt. Shasta's EuroAmerican history as a comparatively recent phenomenon. One might raise the objection that the Indians were here much earlier, and of course that is true. Modern archaeology has estimated that Native Americans have lived in the greater Mt. Shasta region for nearly 9000 years. But Native American written records, such as the pictographs and petroglyphs of the Modoc Indians, are inconclusively interpreted. True written records of the Shasta region really only began with the EuroAmerican groups exploring the region in the early 1800s, and it was not until the 1830s that specific unambiguous written mention of the mountain began.

One thing to keep in mind when using this bibliography is that each decade of the past 200 years has had its own concerns and problems. The reader of this bibliography can glean a sense of the past by paying attention to the date in which each entry was originally written. This historical sense, difficult to achieve in the modern world, is certainly part of the intent of this bibliography. Where possible I have tried to choose quotations which reflect, directly or indirectly, these differences in outlook from decade to decade.

Problems of History

In keeping with the character of the individuals who have written the original materials, I have tried, where possible and where space allowed, to quote freely from their words. In no other way can the actual sense of the writer be gained, and, in my opinion, it is the direct quotations which give this bibliography a vitality that would be lost in paraphrase.

In most of the annotations, such as that for Josiah D. Whitney's published account of climbing Mt. Shasta in 1862, I have quoted the author and no interpretation is necessary for the context and meaning of the quote are self-evident. But in some cases, especially with earlier materials from the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s, some explanation and interpretation is necessary. Historical uncertainty exists when talking about early accounts of Mt. Shasta. For one thing, in the early exploration accounts, the name "Shasta," in a variety of spellings, was used for a variety of tribes, rivers, mountains, and mountain ranges. I have tried to point out how to read these documents, for if one is not aware of the various applications of the name "Shasta" to different objects, then reading the documents can be very confusing. There are other long-standing historical puzzles associated with Mt. Shasta-- What is the origin of the bizarre Lemuria myth?, Where was the 1830 location of Alexander R. McLeod's "Pass of the Siskiyou?," and so on--so that when a work seemed to hold possible clues to answering these questions I added appropriate notes in my annotation.

But in these annotations my overriding concern was more to save from obscurity bits and pieces of Mt. Shasta history rather than arrive at any definitive answer to long- standing questions. This approach, of noting little-known but perhaps important facts and statements, applies even with the more recent materials. I have used the phrase "Note that..." when injecting opinions about historical questions. Looking at so many materials, one after another, on occasion enabled me to see patterns and contradictions which seemed important to note. I have on occasion clarified what the authors intended themselves. As an example, the "bell legend," about the ringing bells of the cities of "Iletheleme" and "Yaktayvia" within Mt. Shasta, is often cited in books about Mt. Shasta as having been discussed in the prestigious California Folklore Quarterly. While it is true that the 1945 California Folklore Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1, contains an article entitled "California Bell Legends: A Survey," the authors use the Mt. Shasta "bell legend" merely as an example of "what a strong imagination can do with material already at hand," and not as an example of a bona fide California bell legend. In my annotation to this entry I felt it was more important to draw attention to what the authors intended to show about this legend rather than just draw attention to the legend itself. So it is with the other annotations in this bibliography. When possible I have drawn attention to a wide range of perhaps unfamiliar facets of the considered works.

If I have erred in historical interpretation in my annotations, or have neglected important points obvious to others, it was not intended. The body of material is too large, the time too short, and the ambiguity too overwhelming, to be 100 percent certain about what are the origins of the names "Shasta" or "Siskiyous," what is the absolute geological age of Mt. Shasta, what happened to Mt. Shasta's wild Elks, Grizzly Bears, and Big Horn Sheep, or where the Lemurians live. I have presented at the very least what the authors have said about these kinds of questions, and added my comments afterwards.

A significant portion of the materials found in this bibliography has been gleaned from rather obscure and hard-to-find books, articles and manuscripts. A few of the manuscript materials in this bibliography have never before been written about, and many materials in this bibliography have never before been associated with Mt. Shasta. The inclusion of some of these little-known works, such as Liberty Hyde Bailey's account of Mt. Shasta, is one of the strong points of this bibliography. It is hopefully a benefit, and not a debit, that much of the material in this bibliography will be unfamiliar to the reader.

The basic approach has been to lay out what is available so that the future researcher at least does not have to rediscover the existence of these materials. One can argue about history forever, but the arguments are more meaningful if everyone knows and agrees what pieces of evidence are available. Thus my annotations are not the primary concern of this bibliography, the documents themselves are. The bibliography is intended as a reference to guide the reader to the original document. If the annotation doesn't seem quite right, and in many instances probably isn't, remember that one is supposed to read the original, and not rely on my opinions. And it must be kept in mind that there will be hundreds of newly discovered materials in the future which will add to the depth of the questions and answers about Mount Shasta's past.

This bibliography is not a history per se. Readers interested in an interpretive history of Mount Shasta can refer to Charles Lockwood Stewart's excellent 1929 History and Discovery of Mount Shasta written under the guidance of historian Herbert Bolton and ethnologist A. L. Kroeber. Two other fine books are A. F. Eichorn's 1957 Mount Shasta Story, and more recently Michael Zanger's 1992 Mount Shasta History, Lore, Myth. All three of these books contain a wealth of material outlining the main historical questions pertaining to Mount Shasta.

About the Collection

Most of the entries in this bibliography are for materials held by the College of the Siskiyous Mount Shasta Special Research Collection. The Collection began in 1983 under the urging of Mr. Dennis Freeman, Director of the Library and Media Services at the College of the Siskiyous. His foresight, enthusiasm, and continual diligence has allowed the collection to grow steadily so that today it contains the most diverse and complete collection of Mt. Shasta reference materials in existence. In a paper entitled Mt. Shasta, Fact and Fiction - A Bibliography and Special Collection, Dec. 13, 1983, Mr. Freeman proposed to "develop a comprehensive research collection and bibliography of fiction and non-fictional sources on Mount Shasta for the use of students, faculty, researchers, other libraries, museums and the public....It is the policy to collect original or copies of materials for content and information rather than value. College of the Siskiyous does not have the financial resources to purchase rare or expensive items. All materials will be incorporated into the master bibliography, whether or not they are actually held by the College. The location of materials will be indicated, if known. College of the Siskiyous will solicit and encourage donations of original or copies of any materials relating to Mount Shasta. Others will be purchased if they can be justified within budgetary limits. Materials for this special collection may include: books, pamphlets, newspapers, periodicals or periodical articles, photographs and prints, audio or video tape recordings, clippings, manuscript materials, maps and drawings, microforms and ephemera."

The Mount Shasta Special Research Collection has grown over these past ten years, and continues to grow, through donations of materials and funds from a wide array of individuals and institutions interested in the study of one of the nation's great mountains.


It is only fitting to acknowledge first and foremost those people who have given materials to the Mount Shasta Special Research Collection. Although it may be more the College's responsibility to acknowledge such contributions, as the compiler of this bibliography I feel it is just as much my part to draw attention to the contributors' importance, for without any books or manuscripts to look at, there couldn't be a bibliography. Fortunately over the years many dedicated people have contributed materials to the collection, and to them should go a heartfelt recognition. The McConnell Foundation in particular has granted funds earmarked for the Mt. Shasta Collection, enabling the collection to gain many materials sorely lacking. My thanks then to the McConnell Foundation, and to the individual contributors.

Dennis Freeman conceived and oversaw the compilation of this bibliography. Without his work many of these difficult-to-find materials would never have seen the light of day. His breadth of knowledge and extensive contacts with libraries and archives around the country, combined with his personal determination to seek out unique and unusual Mt. Shasta materials, resulted in our mutual and never-ending amazement at the quantity and quality of materials pertaining to Mt. Shasta. I thoroughly enjoyed working with Mr. Freeman. Much credit goes to mountaineer and Mt. Shasta historian Michael Zanger who brought to our attention many obscure yet important historical documents which otherwise would not have found their way into this bibliography. The library staff at College of the Siskiyous also deserves much credit, not only for processing interlibrary loans and finding materials, but also for their congenial hospitality and professional competency. Although only a small community college library, it is a remarkably busy and well-run institution, with a surprisingly high quality and informed staff. Thus credit goes to them, Eleanor Mauro, Nancy Shepard, Debbie Smith, Anna Volf, and Lynda Zehsazian.

Staff members at many libraries and institutions around the country have been invaluable in offering interlibrary loans, and in many cases have been most helpful in answering questions and going out of their way to locate obscure materials. Especially helpful have been the staffs of the California Collection at the California State Library, the Special Collections Library of the Meriam Library at California State University- Chico, the Manuscript and Cartographic Divisions of the Library of Congress, the United States National Archives, the Beinecke and Main Libraries at Yale University, and the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley.

Much credit goes to Annaïck Blanchet and Norris Eisenbrey for taking the time and care to proofread this document. They made many more corrections and suggestions than I could not possibly find time to rectify. They each contributed time and energy to several research projects related to this bibliography. Dennis Freeman read most of the section introductions and made many valuable corrections. He also showed a merciful tolerance towards my lack of knowledge about bibliographic rules. I would especially like to thank Ric Barline and Marcia Frederick for providing an old fashioned but high- tech alternative energy log house to live in and work in while compiling these documents; the combination of the old and the new seemed most appropriate for this project.

I am much indebted to the Mount Shasta bibliographic work of the late Edward Stuhl. His manuscript bibliography of 900 typewritten and 300 handwritten entries has given invaluable leads to important materials. His entries, though in general not annotated, were prepared with care over a period of more than 50 years. Parts of his manuscript bibliography were updated somewhat and published as three reference lists in his 1981Wildflowers of Mt. Shasta ; these three reference lists have also proved very useful in locating materials.

Charles Lockwood Stewart compiled a carefully annotated bibliography of approximately 300 entries as an appendix to his 1929 Master's thesis, The Discovery and Exploration of Mt. Shasta. His bibliography was a great help in locating and evaluating materials.

The "Schrader File" cited occasionally in the present bibliography, is a file of hundreds of interesting Mt. Shasta region materials compiled by George Schrader. The original file is in the possession of the Shasta-Trinity National Forest. George Schrader was an administrative assistant of the Shasta National Forest from 1936 until 1954, and was instrumental in creating the Siskiyou County Historical Society, founded in 1945. Mr. Schrader corresponded with many noted historians and interviewed scores of "old- timers;" his file is a researcher's treasure of unpublished letters and documents.

The Organization of the Bibliography

An arrangement of the entries was sought which might best keep like with like. Therefore the bibliography has been arranged by what might be termed natural groupings. That is, all the materials relevant to geology are grouped together, all the materials about 19th Century mountaineering are grouped together, all the materials containing poetry about the mountain are grouped together, and so on. Unfortunately such a perfect natural grouping of materials is impossible to achieve, because one entry can fit many topics. Thus a suggestion: when using this bibliography as a starting point for some project, keep in mind that more than one section probably has material relevant to your needs. For example Section 30. Science: Geology & Climate is lacking the published and unpublished works of the eminent 19th Century geologist James Dwight Dana. His works, which contain his 1841 observations about Mt. Shasta's geology, have been placed in Section 9. Early Exploration: American Government Expeditions, 1841-1860, placed there because of his important association with the earliest scientific expedition to Mt. Shasta. Space would not allow placing the same entry in more than one subject grouping. This limitation of placement should be kept in mind when looking for entries about any particular subject matter. The subject headings are useful, but are not absolute.

There are 32 topic sections and each is an independent unit of related materials. Within each section the entries are arranged alphabetically by author, or, when no author is given, alphabetically by title.

The first fourteen topic sections, 1-14, are in roughly chronological order following the pattern of historical exploration of Mt. Shasta; that is, Section 1 is an overview, Sections 2 and 3 concern the first people in the region, Sections 4 through 10 concern issues associated with the early French, Spanish, Russian, British, and American explorers. Sections 11 and 12 address the mountaineering which began after the early exploration era. Section 13 addresses permanent settlement after the Gold Rush. Section 14, on the name "Shasta," contains materials relevant to all of the preceding sections.

The remaining eighteen topic sections, 15-32, are arranged in subject order, with each topic section containing a mix of 19th and 20th Century materials. Sections 15 through 19 contain legend materials. Sections 20 through 24 contain literary materials. Sections 25 and 26 concern tourism and environmental issues. Sections 27, 28, and 29 contain materials pertaining to the visual record of Mt. Shasta. Sections 30-32 are about the scientific study of Mt. Shasta.

The Entry Format

Each entry begins with an a entry number; these numbers are utilized in the indexes at the end of the bibliography. The entry numbers are numbered consecutively from 1 to 1253 from the first entry of the first section through to the last entry of the last section. These consecutive entry numbers allow for uncomplicated indexing of authors and titles, and also allow for a straightforward way to differentiate among two or more similar titles.

Author names (with dates of birth and death, when known, in parentheses) are given in bold print.

Titles of book, journals, newspapers, manuscripts, etc., are given in italic print.

Article titles found within larger works, and chapter titles found within larger works, are given in plain print enclosed in quotation marks, e.g. "Title."

Brackets enclosing author names, e.g., [Miller, Joaquin], or enclosing titles, e.g., [Wintu Stories manuscript], indicate infomation or desciptive titles supplied by the compiler of this bibliography in those cases when an original author name or title name was not found.

Author names with accents, such as Cervé, Frémont, Lapérouse, etc., have their accents left off to facilitate computer searching of the author entry field; in the body text of the annotations, however, these accents have been retained. Also, some names, such as Laframboise (or La Framboise, La Framboy, etc.), and Lapérouse (or La Pérouse, La Peyrouse, etc.) have been the subject of orthographic dispute. The spellings of these names as given in the author entry fields are spellings which have been adopted by distinguished biographers of the respective authors. Information validating these spellings is found in some of the annotations.

The primary emphasis of the bibliography has been to describe content and therefore physical descriptions such as document size and number of pages have not been noted, except in a few cases where the information was considered useful. However, dates of first editions have been given when known.

Some entries will have the statement "Source:" or "Source of Citation:" followed by a name or number, e.g. "Source of Citation: Stewart 1929 #251;" when such a source is noted it means that the work has not yet been obtained for review and has not been seen, but that the source material indicated that the work was important to the study of Mt. Shasta.

At the end of each entry is a bracketed MS number. These numbers, e.g., "[MS457]," indicate the Mount Shasta Special Collection accession numbers used by the College of the Siskiyous Library. The library has either originals or copies of most of the materials listed in this bibliography.

The Table of Contents at the beginning of the book serves as a general guide to the materials. At the back of the book there are separate author and title indexes. Consult the author index to find out if an author has entries in more than one topical section, and consult thetitle index to find a particular title. The title index is amenable to browsing and may lead the reader to unexpected findings.

I sincerely hope that the user of this bibliography will not only find the unexpected, but will, as I have, derive some moments of wonder and curiosity from the materials described in this bibliography.

-William C. Miesse March, 1993

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